Garden perennial primrose is one of the first plants to bloom in the garden. Even its name comes from the word “prima” (“first”). But there are also varieties that bloom until mid-summer. Basically, primrose bushes are squat, and therefore ideal for the lower tier of mixborders. These flowers always have a contrasting center, and some species also have two-color petals.
Types of perennial primroses
This is a perennial flower highly ornamental plant of the primrose family. The name ” primroses ” is not always justified in relation to primrose. Its numerous species are known, blooming not only in spring, but also in early, middle and even late summer. All of them are of decorative interest.
Your attention is a description of the primrose plant of the most common species.
Primula spring – the earliest flowering primrose – from April to May. Plant up to 30 cm tall with flowers of a wide variety of colors, sometimes two-tone, but more often yellow . Inflorescences are umbellate, dense, large, many-flowered. The leaves are ovate, narrowed into a petiole, crenate, wrinkled.
Primula large -cup – blooms from late April and into May. The flowers are yellow, inside with orange spots. Inflorescences are umbellate.
Plant height 30-35 cm. Along with the previous species, it has high medicinal properties.
Primrose toothed – relatively high, up to 50 cm, a plant that blooms in April-May. The leaves are large, oblong-oval, strongly wrinkled, finely serrated. The flowers are lilac, purple, relatively small, collected in capitate, almost round dense inflorescences.
Primrose stemless – just like spring, the earliest of all species. It differs from the spring one by the presence of only one yellow flower on a stem 15-20 cm high.
Primula Julia is also an early flowering plant (April to May). Low, only 10-15 cm tall. The leaves are basal, long-petiolate, light green, ovate-rounded with a heart-shaped base. And the flowers are purple-pink, up to 3 cm in diameter, solitary, on thin pedicels.
Primrose Siberian begins to bloom in May and ends in June with red-violet, rarely white flowers in umbellate inflorescences. The leaves are basal, petiolate, with a heart-shaped base, pubescent. The stem is thin, slightly hairy, up to 30 cm high.
Primula ear (auricula) has spherical-umbellate, rather large inflorescences.
Leaves basal, petiolate, slightly serrated along the edge. Flower arrow up to 25 cm in height. Flowers and leaves have a powdery coating on the underside. Blooms in May.
Primula Voronova – early flowering (April to May). Plant height up to 20 cm. Leaves basal, ovate. The flowers are pink, collected in an umbrella-shaped loose inflorescence.
Japanese primrose is a very original plant, not like primroses, at least in terms of flowering time. It starts in June and lasts until the end of August. What does this primrose blooming “late” look like? Its flowers are reddish, up to 2 cm in diameter, arranged in tiers in the inflorescence in the form of many-flowered rings. Flowering begins from the lower tiers, decreasing towards the top.
Primula Pallas – in terms of flowering, it occupies an intermediate position. Flowering continues from May to June. The flowers are light yellow – “rams” – in umbellate inflorescences. Leaves basal, obovate. Plant height up to 30 cm.
Primroses with a summer flowering period include: Siebold’s primrose, Buddley’s primrose, Bullesian’s primrose, Bissa’s primrose.
The variety of species of primrose allows you to have a flowering cascade of plants from spring to the end of summer. However, such a decorative effect is possible only with proper agrotechnical care.
Reproduction, planting and caring for garden perennial primrose
Here you will learn how to grow perennial primrose in your garden.
When growing garden perennial primroses, clay soils are unfavorable, they must be loosened with sand, humus and peat.
Primula gratefully tolerates transplants. It can be transplanted in spring, summer and autumn. The only condition is abundant watering and the preservation of a clod of earth. However, the optimal time for planting should be recognized as early spring and the first half of September. Of course, the quality of the planting material must be good. After planting, the plants should be watered abundantly for 10-15 days. In the subsequent care – mulching, weeding and watering.
After planting garden perennial primroses, when caring for them, be sure to give three fertilizers. One – in early spring (nitrogen), the second – 2-3 weeks after the first (phosphorus) and the third – in early August (potassium-phosphorus-nitrogen). However, primrose fertilizer doses should be low.
When re-fertilized, the primrose does not bloom. It is good to mulch the soil with humus in the spring.
Primrose should be watered abundantly, but not often, only on the hottest and driest days. But at the end of August, watering should be increased. During this period, new leaves are formed and buds are laid. If there is a long, warm autumn, the primrose may bloom, which is not at all desirable. Flowers must be cut off, and the plant fertilized so that it does not go exhausted into winter. It is very important to keep the leaves until late autumn. They not only nourish the plants, but also provide a natural shelter for the winter.
Primula reproduces well by dividing bushes, cuttings and seeds .
Dividing a bush is the easiest way. Three-year-old bushes are divided in spring or late summer. When planting, do not bury the root neck. It should also take into account the strong growth of plants, so they should be planted at a distance of at least 20 cm from each other.
Reproduction by primrose seeds is simple and highly desirable, since the plant is completely rejuvenated. Seeds should be sown fresh in the fall of the current year. Sowing is done in open ground, boxes or pots . Seedlings dive when two true leaves appear at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other. Only in the second year they are transplanted to a permanent place. When propagating and caring for primrose for the winter, seedlings must be covered with dry leaves with a layer of 10 cm.