Whichever way you choose to propagate roses, do not forget about the ultimate goal: getting a healthy and beautiful bush that blooms annually, and in the case of remontant varieties, twice a year. How to properly propagate roses at home and on the site, how to provide them with decent care in the future? Read the material below and you can get started.
Wild-growing types of roses are propagated by seeds – to obtain rootstocks and when breeding new varieties, and cultivated varieties – vegetatively.
There are several ways of vegetative propagation of roses: rooting of cuttings and cuttings, grafting (budding) on wild rose. Propagation of roses by green cuttings, carried out in spring and summer, allows you to quickly get planting material.
Rose hip budding (with video)
The best time for the propagation of roses by budding is from mid-July to the end of August.
The occluded peephole hibernates on the wild rose in a hilled form.
In early spring, the occulants are unpacked, the bandage is removed, and the wild is cut 0.7-1 cm above the grafted kidney. It is desirable to cover the cut with garden pitch.
Budding of roses should be done with a well-honed garden knife or pruner.
From a bad tool, the fabrics crumple, the bark lifts up and lags behind the wood.
It is necessary to ensure that the cutting blade of the pruner passes over the lagging part of the plant. The cut should be smooth, slightly oblique (from the bud), with intact and non-flaking bark.
After pruning the wild rose, the grafted buds begin to grow rapidly. In the case of roses budding on wild rose, occulants with a dead eye, but with a green bark of the shield, should not be removed, since cultural shoots may develop later – from dormant buds on the shield.
As a rule, small sleepers are located on it on both sides of the main kidney.
Sometimes all three eyes start growing at the same time, but usually one shoot begins to grow.
When forming a bush, one should strive to ensure that branching starts as low as possible.
The most valuable are plants in which the main skeletal branches (2-3) are formed from buds on the shield, that is, in the zone of the root collar. Therefore, we must try to cause the formation of the main shoots from all three eyes.
If the occulants grow freely, without pinching, then most develop one main shoot, which blooms quite quickly, already after the 7th or 8th leaf.
The plant turns out to be weak, lateral shoots are formed most often in the axils of the upper leaves, that is, they do not participate in the formation of the skeleton of the bush. Additional shoots from the grafting site do not develop at all or begin to grow in late summer. Usually they turn out to be fatty, do not have time to ripen well by autumn and freeze over in winter.
In order to awaken dormant buds as soon as possible, it is necessary to pinch (pinch) the cultural shoot growing from the central eye as soon as possible.
Moreover, the main thing is not its length, but the number of developing leaves. Pinch roses over the 3-4th leaf. At the same time, the wild growth is removed with the first pinch, if it has appeared.
Shortly after pinching, second-order shoots begin to grow from the axils of the upper leaves.
From the bottom, from the dormant buds of the grafted shield, 1-2 strong additional stems appear. In addition, the buds located in the axils of the lower (scaly) leaves of the main shoot start to grow. If the first tweezing did not cause the awakening of the lower buds, then the leader shoot is again pinched over the 2nd-3rd leaf.
It should be borne in mind that even in plants of the same variety, the growth of the scion does not occur simultaneously, so tweezing must be carried out selectively.
With a later pinching (above the 5-6th leaf), branching occurs mainly from the axils of the lower true leaves of the main shoot. Bushes are obtained on a low bole, such a plant is more in danger of freezing.
The good development of young rose bushes largely depends on the proper care of plants and soil.
Weeds must be removed regularly. They not only impoverish the soil, but also greatly shade the roses. Loosening is carried out at least 5-6 times during the growing season. If the soil was well fertilized when planting rootstocks, and the weeds were removed in time, then there is no need to feed the plants in the first year.
The Rose Budding video will help you better understand how to propagate plants in this way:
The method of vegetative propagation of roses with green cuttings (with photo)
Green cuttings of roses are produced in May-June after they have faded. Cuttings are cut from young, beginning to wood, but not yet hardened shoots. Before rooting a rose, the shoots are cut into pieces with 2 – 3 buds. Cuttings take root better if they are taken with “heels”; they are more likely to form callus and roots.
The lower cut of the cutting when propagating roses by cuttings is made as close as possible to the kidney. Upper – above the kidney by 1 – 1.5 cm.
As you can see in the photo, for propagating roses in this way, cuttings are harvested from the best, profusely flowering rose bushes:
Then they are planted in a greenhouse in pots or bowls, drainage (expanded clay) is poured on the bottom, then peat-humus soil, and on top – clean river sand with a layer of 1.5 – 2 cm.
When propagating roses with cuttings, the material is shaded or covered with a glass cap or jar.
In the greenhouse they are often sprayed. After 15-20 days, they take root and begin to water them.
After rooting, the cuttings are planted in the ground or in small pots. When the roots braid a clod of earth in a pot, a transplant is performed.
All emerging buds are removed so that they do not weaken young plants.
In the same way of propagating roses by cuttings, cuttings can be rooted from lignified branches cut off when pruning bushes.
Well-rooted cuttings taken from faded healthy shoots, as well as from lateral, not very strong growing branches.
Look at the photo of propagation of roses by cuttings below:
Winter rose grafting on wild rose and a video on how to graft plants
How to plant a rose to get a beautiful bush? Rosehip seedlings with a well-developed root system are instilled in a cool basement in the fall. At the end of February, they are brought into the room, the above-ground part is cut off, leaving 5-6 cm, and planted in pots. During the winter grafting of roses, the root collar should not be covered with earth when planting. The roots are cut slightly, and to fit in a pot, they are laid in a spiral. When the wild rose begins to sprout, green cuttings are grafted to it, cut from the best bushes that have already bloomed before. Cuttings are taken with one bud and leaf. Below the kidneys make an oblique cut. Then the wild rose is cut a little obliquely, a cut is made in the root neck and the stalk is inserted so that its bud is above the upper part of the wild cut. When grafting roses on rose hips in winter, the inserted stalk is tightly wrapped with a strip of film or bast and covered with a glass on top.
Grafted plants should be kept in a well-lit window in a warm room. After 8-10 days, the cuttings begin to grow. Glasses are removed from the regrown cuttings and gradually accustomed to room conditions. When they grow to 20 cm, cuttings can be taken from them for grafting. Simultaneous cutting of the top of the shoot is the formation of rose bushes.
Your attention is a video on how to plant roses, which will help you better understand the technology of the process:
Reproduction of a room rose: how to cut a plant
Miniature roses are propagated by green and semi-lignified cuttings. Can be propagated by budding on rose hips.
The difficulty lies in the fact that these roses have very thin shoots from which they take eyes, while the size of the eye must correspond to the thickness of the rootstock.
Propagation of a room rose begins with cutting cuttings.
It is better to cut indoor roses in spring or summer, but it is also possible in autumn, always with green leaves.
For rooting, shoots 10-15 cm long are used, which are cut into cuttings 5-7 cm in size.
One by one they are planted in pots or (better) in a room greenhouse.
In this case, the lower leaves are removed, 1-2 eyes with leaves are left on the surface; cover with jars or plastic bags; contain in a room on the north or east window. Cuttings take root within 4-6 weeks.
Care consists in systematic watering and periodic airing (the soil in pots should always be slightly moist).
As soon as the stalk under the jar (or in the greenhouse) starts to grow, it means that it has taken root, the plant can be opened.
Room greenhouses. Before cutting a room rose, it is recommended to make greenhouses with water heating. They are a wooden box 50-60 cm long, 30-40 cm wide and 35-45 cm high. Two pairs of rails are nailed or, better, screwed to the inner longitudinal walls. On the lower rails, above the heater, they put a basin made of galvanized iron, into which water is poured to 3/4 of its height.
A metal mesh is attached to the upper rails, on which a layer of drainage is applied, then a layer of moss or peat 2 cm, 2-3 cm of good plant and humus soil are poured onto the peat, and a layer of river sand 2 cm is created on top. Here the best conditions are created for the rooting of any plants.
Under the basin, at the bottom of the box, electric lamps are placed, which heat the water in the basin.
When water is heated, the soil is saturated with vapor and heats up; the air heats up, and the water, evaporating, humidifies the air in the greenhouse.
Ways to propagate climbing roses
Climbing roses are propagated by layering, stem cuttings, which gives own root planting material, and budding on the roots of wild rose.
To propagate climbing roses by layering, long shoots are pinned to loose soil in a shallow hole 10-15 cm deep, and sprinkled with loose nutrient soil on top, leaving only the tops uncovered.
Rooting is much faster if the shoot at the base is pulled with wire or ring cuts are made in the bark. The laying time of layering is early spring. Layers take root by the end of summer, but it is better to separate them from the mother bush next spring.
Propagation cuttings can be either green summer cuttings or semi-lignified autumn cuttings, which are cut in the fall before the shelter of roses or the onset of cold weather.
In the conditions of the south of Russia, cuttings can be planted immediately into the ground obliquely, leaving only one eye on the soil surface. From above, the cuttings are covered with humus or peat.
Summer cuttings are carried out in June-July. On the cuttings take the middle of a faded shoot, 8-10 cm long, with 2-3 leaves, which are shortened by half to reduce evaporation.
Planted in greenhouses or special boxes to a depth of 2 – 3 cm at a distance of 3 – 5 cm from each other. Before rooting, they must often be sprayed with water, shaded from the sun, aired. Rooting usually occurs within 2 to 3 weeks.
The most widespread method of reproduction is by grafting, i.e. budding on the wild rose.
Propagation of indoor and polyanthus roses by seeds
Not only indoor, but also roses for and open ground can now be grown from seeds, however, so far only polyanthus. Their seeds are sold in specialized stores. Rose polyanthus terry – a wonderful perennial plant for flower beds, borders, alpine slides. By the abundance of flowering – one of the best in the “pink country”. Flowers – terry and semi-double, retain their beautiful appearance for a long time, of various colors.
Reproduction of roses by seeds through seedlings makes it possible to get abundant summer flowering in the first year.
Sowing is carried out in moist, prepared soil, placed in small containers.
The seeds are evenly distributed over the surface, lightly sprinkled with sand, then covered with a film and kept for two weeks at room temperature, then 1-2 months in the refrigerator at a temperature of +5 … +70. After the specified period or when seedlings appear, they should be grown at room conditions.
Do not allow intense sunlight.
When planting finished seedlings, you need to choose a sunny site with well-drained soil and protection from the wind. Landing distance – 30cm.
Before flowering, plants need to be watered and fertilized with complex mineral fertilizers (“Weaving wagon”, “Organomineral wagon”, nitroammophoska, etc.).
Plants form in the form of bushes. At the end of the flowering season, pruning is necessary. Cover slightly for the winter.
Polyanthus rose can be grown and. as a house plant. From seeds, get plants with red, pink, orange and yellow flowers.