Poskonnik: description, cultivation and use

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Stem (lat. Eupatorium) is a plant of the Aster family, widespread in culture. The genus includes more than a hundred varieties that can be perennials and annuals. The birthplace of the flower is North America. Today this plant is common in all parts of Europe and Asia. The culture is able to grow in any conditions and form a large number of buds.

Description

Stem has a straight, hollow, slightly branched green or brown stem 50–260 cm long. There are sparse thin hairs on its surface. Leaves are whorled or opposite, short-petiolate or sessile. The shape of the leaf plates is lanceolate, diamond-shaped, oval, elongated, spear-shaped, heart-shaped, which depends on the type of plant. The edges of the foliage are straight or serrated. As for the surface of the leaf plates, it can also be different: smooth, fleecy, densely pubescent.

The flowers are bisexual, small, tubular, cylindrical, enclosed in dense inflorescences resembling clusters. The color of the buds is pink, purple, white. Flowers bloom in the first decade of July, flowering lasts until September. The buds exude a sweet strong aroma that attracts pollinating insects to the site, so the briar is considered an excellent honey plant.

The fruit is a small burgundy achene. After ripening, the seeds scatter with gusts of wind over long distances.

Species and varieties

Among the many species and varieties of the sapling, it is not difficult for gardeners to choose the most suitable plant for their personal plot.

Purple ( E. purpureum ). Perennial species with a powerful developed rhizome, 135 – 150 cm high. The bush consists of straight, slightly branching stems of a bluish-green hue. Leaf blades are ovate, elongated, with small teeth along the edge. The flowers are lilac or lilac in color, enclosed in inflorescences-shields.

Spotted (E. maculatum ). Tall species, capable of reaching 170 cm in height. Leaf blades are elliptical, elongated, whorled. Inflorescences racemose, lilac shade.

Photo and description of varieties of the maculatum species:

Album” – the length of the stem is 200 cm. The flowers are white with a greyish tint.

Orchard Dene” – a two-meter variety that forms pale pink inflorescences for 2 months. Flowering occurs in mid-summer.

“Little Joe” is a meter-long bush that forms pale pink inflorescences – scutes throughout the summer months. Valued for the brightness and duration of flowering.

Purple Bash” – has straight hollow burgundy stems. Flowers pink-lilac color. Grows up to 140 cm.

Barterd Bride” – valued for snow-white lush inflorescences. Its height exceeds 2 m.

Little Red” – is in demand because of the expressive lush burgundy inflorescences.

Phantom” – unlike other varieties, its height does not exceed 80 cm. The plant is distinguished by purple shoots and piercing pink flowers. It looks very expressive, attracting attention from afar.

Hemp (E. cannabinus). The height of a sprawling shrub varies from 40 to 120 cm, the crown diameter is 100 cm. The leaf blades are palmately separate, and consist of several segments, slightly fleecy, attached to short petioles. The flowers are pale pink, enclosed in corymbose inflorescences. Flowering begins in mid-July, lasts for 6 – 7 weeks.

The best varieties:

Flore Pleno” – reaches 100 – 160 cm in height. Forms lush pink inflorescences for 1.5 months.

Album” – a bush 80 – 120 cm high with snow-white racemose inflorescences that stay on the plant for 7 weeks.

Splashes of paint” – a very bright variety that serves as an expressive spot on the site, adds color to even a nondescript garden area. Features of the variety are large emerald leaves with light spots on the surface and lush pink inflorescences.

Variegatum” – grows up to 70 – 80 cm. Oval leaves with a wavy border of white color and bright pink inflorescences give decorativeness to the variety.

Tubular (E. fistulosum). It is distinguished by its impressive size, since it can reach 2.5 m when grown in the garden. We have a thick, strong central stem, from which thinner shoots extend. Leaf plates are oval, slightly elongated, deep green, with an opposite arrangement. The inflorescences are loose, corymbose, consist of pale pink flowers.

Varieties:

Mountain Garden” is a lush, spreading shrub with numerous purple inflorescences. Pleases the eye with bright long flowering for 2 – 2.5 months.

Karin” – differs in lilac colors of buds. The bush has a wide crown, which consists of many branching stems. Reaches 150 – 170 cm.

White Tower” is a very showy variety. During flowering, the tree resembles a white fragrant cloud.

Wrinkled (E. rugosa). Spreading shrub with a straight central stem 80 – 100 cm high. The splendor of the plant is given by the heart-shaped large numerous foliage of a slightly elongated shape. During flowering, a large number of dense snow-white and cream inflorescences bloom on the bush.

Popular varieties:

Chocolate” – characterized by brown foliage with a bronze sheen. The flowers are small, white, are part of the racemose inflorescences. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, successfully hibernates without shelter.

Brownlaub” – the bush grows up to 1.5 m. It forms bronze foliage and buds of a brown color scheme.

Cultivation

For the reproduction of the steward, methods such as dividing the bush, sowing seeds for seedlings, and cuttings are used. Seed material, under favorable conditions, can be immediately planted on the site, choosing a warm fine day in the second half of April, or in early May. Seeds germinate within 3 weeks.

Before growing the stem by the seedling method, the seeds are stratified for 30 to 40 days, kept in a cool place, placed in a container with sand.

Sowing is carried out in the first half of March. The seed is sown in a dish with a loose fertile soil mixture, deepening by 0.5 cm. The crops are moistened using a sprayer, covered with a glass lid or plastic film is used as a shelter in order to create optimal conditions for growth.

When caring for crops, the shelter is removed daily to ventilate and remove accumulated condensate. Stem sprouts develop within 3 weeks. After they appear on the surface of the earth, the shelter must be removed.

When the second pair of leaves is formed in young plants, they dive into separate pots. So that the root system does not suffer when transplanting seedlings into open ground, it is recommended to take peat pots for picking.

Planting seedlings on the site is carried out in the second half of May after the earth is well warmed up. Before this work, seedlings are hardened for 10 – 14 days, exposing them daily to the street and gradually increasing the time spent in the open air.

Seedling planting rules

When choosing a plot of open ground for planting and caring for a vine, it should be borne in mind that it develops most actively in open sunny spaces and in openwork penumbra. The soil should be light, permeable to oxygen, with a neutral acid reaction.

The plot for growing a sapling needs preliminary preparation. It is dug up, humus is introduced, leveled, stones are removed. After carrying out the preparatory work, planting pits are made of such a depth that the seedlings can freely fit in it along with a peat pot.

It is necessary to maintain a distance between the bushes of about 40 cm so that the plants do not interfere with each other’s development. After placing the seedlings in the planting pit, the required amount of earth is added, its surface is compacted, irrigated.

cuttings

Cuttings are cut in the summer months, choosing for this purpose a perennial bush with healthy shoots. The length of the planting material should be 7 – 10 cm. The end of the cuttings is dipped in a solution that stimulates root growth. After that, they are buried in the soil mixture, moistened and covered with a plastic cap.

Planting seedlings in open ground is carried out in September. Heat-loving varieties sensitive to low temperatures are kept indoors during the autumn-winter period, and with the onset of spring they are transplanted to the site.

Division

To obtain seedlings with varietal characteristics of mother plants, an overgrown bush is divided, which has reached the age of 5. This work can be done in the spring before the foliage begins to appear, or in the fall after the bush has completely faded.

Before propagating the stem by dividing, the plant is carefully dug out, trying not to damage the roots, and placed in a bucket of water to clean the roots from the ground. After that, the bush is divided into parts with a sharp knife or ax. Delenki are planted in the places allotted for them in pre-prepared landing pits.

Care

  • Watering. The vine is a moisture-loving plant that needs regular abundant watering. This culture feels good near water bodies, and it is not afraid of stagnation of moisture in the soil. On the contrary, it can get sick and wither during a long drought. After watering, loosen the soil around the bush so that oxygen enters the roots. In addition, systematic loosening prevents the formation of a dense crust on the surface of the earth. In order to retain moisture longer in the substrate, you need to sprinkle its surface with a layer of mulch.
  • Topdressing. For an active build-up of green mass and abundant flowering, when breeding a window sill, you can not do without top dressing. The first time fertilizer is applied in the spring after the snow melts, the second time this work is repeated at the beginning of summer, the third time – during the formation of buds. Any mineral fertilizer or mullein solution is used as top dressing.
  • Pruning. During the year, damaged and too long stems are cut. Timely remove faded inflorescences to form new buds. Timely pruning of wilted flowers prevents uncontrolled self-seeding.
  • Transfer. Stubble is a perennial culture that successfully develops and forms buds in one place for 5 years. Older specimens are transplanted to a new place. A rejuvenating transplant is carried out in April or September after flowering.
  • Wintering. Before the onset of cold days, the stems are shortened, leaving a length of no more than 10 – 15 cm. Young specimens are covered with spruce branches. In addition, a bucket of humus soil is poured under each bush. This allows the seedlings to successfully endure the winter months. Biennial plants successfully endure the winter without shelter.

Applying

A profusely flowering vine is often found in gardeners’ plots. It is used in single plantations, planted in empty corners of the garden, used as a bright background for undersized plants.

This culture looks advantageous in mixborders, in high flower beds, and is planted near a reservoir to decorate it. With its help, decorate outbuildings, hide unsightly areas. Tall varieties are suitable for creating hedges.

Harmonious partners for the briar in the landscape design of the garden are daylilies, astilbe, irises, echinacea, buzulnik, Japanese anemone, wormwood. The inflorescences of this culture stand for a long time in the cut. In addition, flowers and stems are suitable for creating ikebana.

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