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Roses: planting, care and pruning in autumn and spring

HomeAbout rosesRoses: planting, care and pruning in autumn and spring

In order for a specially designated place in your garden to turn into a fragrant pink flower garden, causing the envy of your neighbors, you will have to work hard. Planting and caring for roses is troublesome, but all your efforts will pay off with interest. Firstly, once planted spray roses will delight you for decades. Secondly, with the correct planting of roses in the ground, most varieties will bloom throughout the warm season.

How to choose a place for planting spray roses

Garden land for planting rose bushes should be fertile, light, rich in humus. They grow well on chernozems, light loams and sandy loams with a good structure and a high content of organic matter. The soil is preferably slightly acidic (pH 5.5-6.5).

How to choose a place for roses to ensure their optimal growth and lush flowering?

Roses need at least 5-6 hours of sun per day and an open location where they are blown from all sides by the breeze. When planting roses in open ground in the bright sun near the southern wall, the plants will feel bad, leaf burns are possible here, and the color of the flower quickly fades.

Some varieties tolerate partial shade. In thickened and poorly ventilated places, roses are more likely to get sick.

Do not plant roses close to buildings, they do not tolerate this. Choose a place for climbing roses not at the very wall of the house, but at least 20-25 cm away from it. The soil near the wall is usually dry and there is a lot of lime in it.

Not the best place to plant spray roses – next to the paved paths, there is also too much heat here. If roses in a container are on a balcony, loggia or paved area in the country, spray them more often (morning and evening) with water.

Organic fertilizers must be applied to the place for planting roses for the winter, dug up and left so that the clods of earth freeze and crumble in the spring. On steep slopes, roses can be grown on terraces. In the shade, they are drawn to the light and bloom poorly.

Most roses are grafted on wild roses, the roots of which go relatively deep into the ground. This circumstance must be taken into account when choosing a place for planting bushes. High groundwater levels cause yellowing of the leaves and promote the development of fungal diseases . Roses love to be flooded with water from time to time, especially during the dry season, but they do not tolerate high levels of groundwater. The depth of occurrence of such waters admissible for them is 100 cm.

Planting and caring for rose bushes (with photo)

When planting roses, you should consider which plants grew before them. A number of horticultural crops are not suitable as rose precursors.

First of all, this applies to representatives of the entire Rosaceae family and almost all fruit trees, which take the same nutrients from the soil as roses. Therefore, before planting roses, the ground must be thoroughly fertilized .

Roses should not be planted too close to trees, especially those whose roots take a lot of nutrients and moisture from the soil. This applies to birch, maple, elm, ash. A place under the crowns of trees is absolutely not suitable for roses. It is not recommended to plant roses in the garden in the immediate vicinity of berries, beds with vegetables and green crops, as well as fruit bushes. It’s not just about aesthetics. With such a neighborhood, it is impossible to carry out protective spraying of roses from powdery mildew, aphids, thrips and a host of other pests and diseases – the crop of neighboring crops will become inedible.

To the detriment of roses and a constant drying draft, which usually occurs near the corners of buildings, in the aisles between them. They also do not like closed places in yards or gardens built up on all sides, surrounded by high blank fences. Air movement is essential for the healthy growth of roses. It should not be limited by framing roses with dense plantings of other shrubs.

With proper planting and regular feeding, roses will delight you for many years.

For planting roses, dig holes about 40x40x30 cm so that the roots fit freely in them. For large spray and climbing roses, larger pits are prepared. If the roots are bent in a small hole when planted, the plants will develop poorly, bloom poorly and are more likely to get sick. After digging a hole, place a rose in it and determine if the hole is deep enough.

If mineral fertilizers have been added to the bottom of the planting hole, mix them with the ground, take care that the roots do not get burned from them until they begin to grow.

Organic fertilizers (humus, compost) are best added to the soil with which you will fill the planting pit. If the soil in the garden is poor, well-rotted organic matter can completely fill the hole around the plant.

As it fills, the soil is carefully compacted, but so as not to damage the roots and twigs of the plant. When spring planting roses in open ground, filling the hole by 2/3, it is watered abundantly, when the water is absorbed, the soil is poured to the top, leaving a hole for vegetation irrigation. And during the autumn planting of roses, the soil is immediately spudded with a rose by 15 – 20 cm.

The best planting time is early autumn, but planting is also possible in early spring, before bud break.

Standard roses for stability are immediately tied to a peg. It is installed in the hole when planting the plant, so as not to damage the roots later. The peg should go to the beginning of the crown. The garter is made with a loop like a figure eight so that the bole does not touch the peg, but is kept at a close distance from it. The stems of roses in the upper part should be tied especially firmly.

Your attention is a selection of photos of planting and caring for roses in the garden:

How to transplant roses to another place

Standard roses are very sensitive to transplantation and require great attention and the most careful care during rooting (survival rate).

It is very important for the successful survival of any kind of roses to create conditions that ensure the preservation of the viability of the shoots. If the bark on the shoots begins to darken and wrinkle, this usually leads to the death of the plant.

Such phenomena are often observed, since cultivated ( varietal ) roses, being plants of southern origin, finish their growth late and remain with insufficiently matured shoots, which are sensitive during transplantation to the action of withering wind and direct sunlight.

To avoid this, it is necessary immediately after the spring planting to shade the rose bushes with agrid, agrotex or other material, and when planting in the fall, to spud high with earth, so that the already cut shoots are completely closed.

In the spring, after removing the winter shelter from the roses, as soon as the soil thaws and dries out somewhat, the bushes are loosened and shallow loosening is carried out with the simultaneous application of nitrogen fertilizers (20-25 g per 1 m2).

The reason for the weakening is that in budded roses, when properly planted (with a depth of 5-7 cm), adventitious roots develop above the grafting site, which play a significant role in nutrition.

They are located in the upper layer of the soil, and when exposed, they dry out and die, which delays the development of shoots from the lower buds.

How to prepare soil for planting roses

Preparing the soil for planting roses is one of the most important steps. The soil should be loosened as it compacts and crusts appear after rain or watering. In order not to damage the roots, it is necessary to step back from the base of the bush by 12-15 cm and loosen to a depth of no more than 3 cm.

How to prepare the soil for planting roses to ensure their active growth? Mulching has a very good effect on the development of roses. Adding mulch for roses with a layer of 2-3 cm (humus, compost, leafy soil, peat or sawdust) 1-2 times during the growing season causes the development of adventitious roots and protects them from drying out. In addition, it contributes to the development of dormant buds located at the base of the bush, giving strong shoots. In climbing and remontant roses, they are replacement shoots that give the main flowering next year. In polyanthus and hybrid tea roses, these shoots give intensive flowering in the year of their appearance.

Of particular importance is the addition of nutrient soil for own-rooted roses, in which the bulk of the finely branched root system is located at a depth of 18 to 30 cm.

When weeding, part of the soil is carried away on the roots of weeds, with insufficiently careful watering from a hose, part of the earth is washed out with water, and this leads to a decrease in the layer of earth above the root system. As a result, the soil dries out quickly, and the plant begins to suffer.

Hilling up the root neck of roses at the expense of soil from row spacing without adding it can also lead to the temptation of the topsoil in the zone of shallow roots. Therefore, mulching the soil for planting roses is considered as an obligatory agrotechnical method when caring for these plants, which helps to improve their development and abundant flowering.

Distance between roses when planting in the ground

An important factor in growing roses is planting density. The distance between roses when planting in the ground is determined, focusing on the size of an adult bush. Tall species and varieties are planted at a distance of 80-100 cm, and undersized – at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other.

Too dense planting is one of the reasons for the severe damage to plants by fungal and bacterial diseases. In thickened plantings, roses stretch upwards, and in the lower part of the bush, the shoots lose their leaves.

But too rare landing is undesirable:

  • the land between individual plants quickly overgrows with weeds, you have to regularly weed, the soil under the bushes overheats in the sun and loses moisture.

The planting density of climbing roses depends on several factors, including the size of an adult plant of a particular variety and the role it plays in the garden. The minimum distance for this group of roses should be 120-130 cm; if you tie the lashes horizontally, then increase the gap between the bushes to 2.5-3 m. The same distance is required for ground cover roses, scattering their lashes several meters around.

When planting budded roses, the grafting site is buried 5-7 cm below ground level. This prevents the bushes from being oppressed by rose hips and greatly facilitates the care of roses.

When to repot roses: repotting in summer

When to transplant roses so as not to damage the plants? It is better to do this in the spring, but sometimes you have to transplant roses in the summer, during the growing season.

How to transplant roses to another place correctly? To do this, the plants should be carefully dug up with a clod of earth, if possible without falling apart. Then carefully plant in a pre-prepared pit, water well, a little prick, shade. When transplanting a rose to another place, you need to shorten the shoots, spray it with water several times a day, and mulch the soil around the bush.

If the rose was planted incorrectly and was not properly cared for, it can give rosehip shoots below the place of budding. The leaves of these shoots, in contrast to the leaves of cultivated varieties, are lighter, of a different size and with a different number of leaflets. They have other spikes.

To remove these wild shoots, you should open the root neck of the bush and part of the roots, carefully cut the shoots at the very root. Sometimes it is enough to escape, if he is young, just to snatch. However, by cutting it off at the surface of the earth, as is often done, the gardener, on the contrary, awakens the shoot to more intensive growth and branching.

How to prune climbing roses

Planting, caring for and pruning roses are all links in the same chain on the way to turning the site into a rose garden.

How to properly prune roses to ensure their lush flowering and active growth?

Pruning climbing roses has its own characteristics:

  • If, when pruning a bush growing against the wall of a house or a fence, do not remove sleeping buds that look at the wall, the shoots growing from them are deformed. Therefore, cut the shoots to the outward-facing bud, then all new shoots will grow from the wall.

In climbing roses, blooming once a year, flowers are formed in late May-June on the shoots of the previous year, and sometimes on older ones, but there are fewer of them and they are usually smaller. This means that pruning of old shoots is best done after flowering in July-August, either flush with the ground, or before a strong young shoot. If there are several of them, one lower one is left, while the plant is rejuvenated.

Watering and mulching: how to water and mulch roses

The role of watering in the life of roses is not as great as that of other garden plants. Since they put their roots deep into the ground and get the necessary moisture from there, their bushes look fresh and healthy even when the leaves on other shrubs wither due to prolonged heat. If the period of summer drought is prolonged, which often happens in the southern region in July, August, watering at least 1-2 times a month is highly desirable for roses. The norm is 20-30 liters per plant or per 1 m2 of rose garden area.

More often, self-rooted roses need watering, as well as those growing on too light or sandy, permeable soil that does not retain moisture well.

How to water roses to ensure the necessary soil moisture? Water only in the morning or evening hours. The best way to water is by inlet (the hose is placed directly to the bush itself and water is released under low pressure so that it flows out slowly). Short watering with strong water pressure will not help, because the moisture will not reach the roots of the plant, it will remain only in the top layer of the soil and quickly evaporate without benefiting the bushes.

For better conservation of moisture and air exchange in the soil, loosening is necessary after each watering and rain.

When watering roses, remember that the less water gets on the leaves, the better, it is advisable not to irrigate them at all. Foliage that remains wet for a long time is more exposed to the threat of infection with fungal diseases (black spot, powdery mildew, botrytis – gray rot, etc.).

Although roses often grow well without watering, be aware that with sufficient soil moisture, stronger and more abundantly flowering bushes develop.

Mulching roses plays an important role in preserving moisture – covering the soil around the bush with a 3-5 cm layer of peat, sawdust, humus, compost or mowed lawn grass.

Mulch in the spring, immediately after breaking up and pruning bushes or loosening the soil around uncovered varieties. Mulching material in late autumn, together with the soil, will also be a good material for sheltering (hilling up) roses. In one or two years, sawdust and mowed grass will perepere and become organic fertilizer, like humus, compost and partly peat.

In mulched areas, the soil structure is significantly improved, it becomes looser, does not compact during irrigation, does not form a crust, the number of weeds is significantly reduced, the harmful effect of soil overheating on the root system is eliminated, roots develop better, and wild growth (rose hips) appears less. on which most varieties are grafted.

Mulching is especially effective in areas where watering is not possible.

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