Work on the breeding of large-flowered varieties of clematis began in the first half of the 18th century and has not stopped to this day. Thanks to the efforts of breeders from different countries, numerous hybrids have been created that can satisfy any, even the most demanding taste. Among them you can find plants of various heights and growth rates, blooming in spring and summer, with small and large, simple or double, variously colored flowers. Clematis varieties are distinguished by exceptionally high decorativeness, which, combined with the unpretentiousness of many cultivars, ease of propagation and care, has contributed to the wide distribution of this one of the most beautiful flowering plants as a crop for vertical gardening.
In our country, clematis are also very popular, however, in the temperate and cold climate characteristic of most of Russia, the success of their cultivation largely depends on the correct choice of variety. Since the work on the creation of large-flowered hybrids was carried out mainly by Western European breeders, most of the cultivars currently on the market develop well in a mild coastal climate with warm winters, and do not tolerate severe frosts common in the northwestern regions, Siberia, and even central Russia. For cultivation under these conditions, it is preferable to use early and mid-early hybrids of Jacqueman, Vititsella or Integrifolia, blooming on annual shoots. These clematis belong to the third pruning group , their above-ground part is cut off completely in autumn, and the underground winters well with minimal shelter.
Representatives of the Lanuginosa, Florida and Patens groups, blooming on last year’s shoots, tolerate frosts much worse and need careful shelter even in the middle lane, although among them there are several winter-hardy varieties of clematis, successfully grown even in the northwest of the country. In turn, among the Zhakman hybrids there are also a number of cultivars that fully reveal their beauty only in the conditions of the south; in the north, such plants bloom worse with age, although they increase their green mass quite well.
Below are descriptions and photos of clematis varieties that are popular among domestic flower growers and are most adapted to the conditions of central Russia.
Varieties of clematis and their photos
All the cultivars described below are cut off completely at the end of the season (third pruning group). In the first half of summer, the following varieties bloom:
Clematis Jackman is an old interspecific hybrid, created in England back in 1858 and still enjoying continued popularity among gardeners around the world. Obtained by crossing several clematis: clematis lanugilosa (woolly), clematis viticella (purple), and one of the first hybrids known as clematis hendersonii.
It is a woody vine 3-4 m high, with unpaired, pubescent leaves below and large, up to 14 cm in diameter, violet-purple or pink flowers, often grouped together in 3 pieces. Blooms profusely and for a long time, from mid-June to late September. The bush is quite winter-hardy, but light shelter is desirable.
Clematis Beata is a variety of Polish selection, introduced on the market in 1986, characterized by very large, 18-25 cm, single or semi-double flowers, painted in bluish-pink color with a distinct pink stripe in the center of each petal.
The bush grows up to 2-3 m, blooms most intensively in June and the first half of July, then until August the flowering weakens somewhat. Relatively compact size allows the flower to be used as a container culture.
Clematis Ville de Lyon
Clematis Ville de Lyon is an old variety created in France back in 1899, and is still included in all cultural catalogs.
Belongs to the Vititsella group and fully possesses all its advantages: abundant and early flowering, unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil, shade tolerance and disease resistance.
Clematis Cardinal Vyshinsky
Clematis Cardinal Vyshinsky is another compact, no higher than 2-3 m, Polish variety, characterized by unusually abundant flowering and resistance to external influences, including frost. Flowers, bright red, 10 – 20 cm in diameter, with numerous burgundy stamens, appear in June-September. Liana feels good in both sun and shade, can be grown as a climbing and creeping plant, suitable for cultivation in containers.
The later, blooming from the second half of summer, varieties of this group include:
Clematis Rouge Cardinal
Clematis Rouge Cardinal is a hybrid from the Jacquemann group, bred in France in 1968 and since then has repeatedly received awards at various international exhibitions.
Liana 2-3 m high, moderately growing and blooming profusely from July to September. It is winter-hardy, develops better in light partial shade, can be used for vertical gardening in the garden, as well as planted in closed containers on terraces, balconies, etc. The color of the flowers is purple-red with white-cream stamens, the shape is cruciform, open, the diameter is up to 15 cm.
Clematis Comtes Debusho
Clematis Comtes Debuchot is another old, but still invariably popular variety belonging to the Jacquement group. Bred by the French breeder F. Morel until 1906, it is distinguished by moderate growth, lush flowering, resistance to diseases. The relatively compact size of the creeper, reaching a height of 2-2.5 m, allows it to be grown not only in open ground , near various kinds of fences, arbors, but also in deep containers to decorate balconies and terraces.
Flowers of medium size, 10-15 cm in diameter, pink-violet with purple veins, cup-shaped, on long, up to 18 cm, peduncles, bloom from June to September, especially numerous in July-August.
Clematis Ernest Markham
Clematis Ernest Markham is named after its creator E. Markham, who introduced the variety in 1936. The height of the bush is about 3-4 m, flowers with wide, slightly wavy, velvety petals, bright crimson with light brown stamens, bloom in the second half of summer.
Clematis Ernest Markham belongs to the Jacquemann group, valued for long, from July to frost, and abundant flowering, has good ability to form shoots and moderate growth, develops better in sunny places.
Clematis Princess Diana
Clematis Princess Diana is a relatively new cultivar introduced in the UK in 1984. Bush height – 2-3 m, flowering time – July-October. It is distinguished by high resistance to diseases, good frost resistance, and most importantly – the original and rare form of flowers, single tulip-shaped bells, directed to the sides and up, up to 8 cm high, 5-6 cm in diameter. Their color is also quite unusual – bright red-pink, with lighter edges.
Since the Princess Diana variety is a clematis from the Texensis group, descended from the species C. Texensis (K. Texas), it achieves the greatest decorative effect when planted in a warm, wind-protected place in the open sun.
Clematis Purpurea Plena elegans
Clematis Purpurea Plena elegans was bred in France at the end of the 19th century. This is another old variety, which, due to its merits, is still in demand and is included in the assortment of nurseries around the world. It is a large, up to 3.5 m high liana, blooming profusely and for a long time, from July to September. Its terry maroon-red flowers with a diameter of 4-6 cm bloom gradually, their petals do not fall off and retain a decorative appearance on the bush for up to 25 days. This hybrid lacks stamens and pistils.
Purpurea Plena elegans is a clematis from the Vititsella group, and, like all its representatives, it is extremely unpretentious, completely frost-resistant, and is little affected by diseases and pests. The relatively small size of the flowers is compensated by their abundance; during flowering, the bushes look very colorful, although somewhat old-fashioned, and also remain decorative for a long time.
Clematis Purpurea Plena elegans is easy to grow and easy to care for, so it is perfect for urban plantings, it is also recommended for beginner gardeners. Can grow in the garden and in a container on a balcony or terrace, quickly curling around supports to create a colorful blooming curtain.
New varieties of clematis
The cultivars listed below belong to the second pruning group; they bloom in two waves: in May-June on overwintered ones and from July to September on new growths.
Clematis clematis Asao
Clematis Asao is a large-flowered hybrid of Japanese selection, created in 1971. A moderately growing vine 2-3 m high, with simple or semi-double flowers with a diameter of 12 to 20 cm, in which fully opened petals are dark pink with a paler stripe in the center, anthers – yellow.
Prefers partial shade, in bright sun the flowers lose their brightness and quickly crumble. It is used for vertical gardening in the garden or, in a large container, on the balcony, wraps well around natural supports – tall shrubs, trees.
Clematis Josephine was first shown at the Chelsea Flower Show in 1998, although it was created much earlier – back in 1980. Josephine Hill, after whom the flower is named, acquired it as an unknown variety. It is a compact vine 2-2.5 m high with very large, up to 18-25 cm in diameter, double flowers.
It belongs to the Patens group, and, like all its representatives, it is distinguished by velvety, unusually soft petals, painted in lilac-pink tones. The variety is characterized by an unusual shape and color of the flower. It has the shape of a rosette, the outer sepals can be green, lilac, pink, purple or cream, the inner, narrower, superimposed on each other, initially colored green, opening gradually, becoming pink with a darker stripe in the center. Interestingly, the color of the flower in the sun and in the shade is radically different. In a shady place, it becomes greenish, the stripes on the petals practically merge with the stems and foliage, and in full light, large, double flowers, gradually opening, become like pompoms of the most bizarre color.
Liana fully shows its decorative effect when planted in the sun or in light partial shade, where it blooms for a long time and abundantly, while the flowers do not fall for a long time, remaining attractive to pollinating insects, since they are sterile. It develops better in the southern regions, in the northern regions it blooms weaker.
Clematis President – one of the old varieties, bred back in 1876, but is still grown widely and everywhere. Belongs to the Patens group, is a compact shrub vine with 6-10 shoots growing up to 2-2.5 m and throughout the season covered with large purple or dark blue-violet flowers, from 15 to 18 cm in diameter, open, cup-shaped, with long, upward peduncles. It blooms magnificently from May to June on overwintered shoots, in July – October on young growths, it is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and frost resistance.
Recommended for cultivation even in the northern regions of the country, can be used to decorate balconies, loggias and terraces, for winter forcing.
Clematis Multi Blue
Clematis Multi Blue is a sport of the President variety, with large, up to 15 cm in diameter, double or semi-double purple-lilac flowers with white tips. Compact bush, not higher than 2 m tall, extremely unpretentious in care.
This combination of advantages makes the variety very popular among gardeners, it is used for growing on supports, as a ground cover, container culture. Liana blooms almost continuously throughout the season, in May-June – with relatively few, but double and large flowers on last year’s growths, in July – August – on young shoots, at this time the largest number of buds is formed, and the liana reaches the peak of its decorative effect. Belongs to the Patents group. Flowers can be used for cutting .
Clematis Blue Light
Clematis Blue Light , bred in Holland in 1998. a sport of the famous English variety, clematis Mrs. Cholmondeley, created back in 1877. The height of the vine is about 2-2.5 m, due to its compact size it looks good in small gardens, suitable for decoration balconies and terraces. Needs a sunny, sheltered location.
A distinctive feature of the variety is light blue flowers with a lavender tint, densely doubled on both old and young shoots, which is quite rare among clematis. Flower diameter – 10 – 15 cm.
Clematis Red Star
Clematis Red Star is a Japanese cultivar from the Patens group, appeared on the market in 1995. Small, not higher than 1.5 – 2 m vines with flowers up to 14 cm in diameter, double or semi-double. They bloom profusely from the second half of May to June, then, again, much more modestly – at the end of summer. Petals of irregular broadly lanceolate shape, with wavy edges, have an original color: red with a pink stripe in the center, a lighter tone at the base and greenish shadows, better visible on the outer petals, stamens with creamy yellow filaments and purple anthers. At the beginning of the season, terry flowers form on the shoots of the previous year, in August-September, on annual growths – simple ones. For planting, it is recommended to choose sunny places.
Winter-hardy varieties of clematis
Among the new varieties of clematis that have recently appeared on sale, the following deserve attention:
Clematis Mazuri , created by Polish breeder Stefan Marchinsky in 2006 and immediately received a prestigious silver medal at an exhibition in Warsaw. It is named after Masuria, a region in northwestern Poland.
Belongs to the Jacqueman group, blooms on annual shoots, requires strong pruning (third group). Gained popularity around the world as one of the best blue varieties. Its large, up to 17 cm, double flowers with numerous pointed petals, lighter along the edge, at the beginning of flowering seem to be made of tissue paper, then open wide, exposing creamy stamens and pistils.
Clematis Mazovsze is another variety of Stefan Marchinsky, also introduced in 2006 and also named after one of the regions of Poland, this time Mazovia.
In many respects it is similar to the previous variety, it has a similar height, diameter and flower structure, flowering time and pruning pattern. It differs only in the color of the petals – purple-red, velvety, pink at the edges, with light stripes on the lower part and bright creamy-purple stamens in the center. Among the advantages of the variety are resistance to disease damage and good winter hardiness .
Clematis Kaiser – a novelty on the flower market, on sale since 2010. This hybrid created in Japan from the Patens group is a miniature liana 1-1.5 m high, with double or semi-double variegated flowers, the numerous petals of which are purple-pink, sometimes light red, with flashes of white or greenish, becoming almost green in cold weather.
The first wave of flowering occurs in May-June, at which time the shoots are completely covered with numerous large, up to 14 cm in diameter, flowers. At the end of summer, flowering is not so plentiful, the color of the buds becomes dark purple by autumn. The plant develops better in the sun, great for container culture.