Plant type: perennial, shrub.
Description: These are hardy plants belonging to the Asteraceae family. Shades of their colors can be any, with the exception of blue. The sizes and shapes of flowers are presented in a huge variety. Some are spherical and have concave petals in the center, some have tubular petals and you can see small needles at the end of them.
- Origin: China, Japan, northern Africa, southern Europe.
- Foliage: lobed, bright green, has a pleasant aroma.
- Flowering: very showy. There are many shapes, sizes and shades of colors.
- Humidity level: moderate.
- Growth rate: average.
Chrysanthemums – care
Growing environment: apartment, greenhouse or garden.
Lighting: full sun, but it is desirable that the rays are indirect and come from the south, east or west.
Soil type: Chrysanthemums are easy to care for and grow well in a potting mix of garden soil, peat moss and sand.
Watering: The soil should be moist. But chrysanthemums tolerate drought, so sometimes the soil can dry out between waterings. Be sure to make sure the soil is well-drained.
Fertilizers: after planting, chrysanthemums need to be fertilized. It can be manure, liquid fertilizer, or you can add both. Fertilizers should be applied one month after planting. For these plants, sheep, cow or chicken droppings are well suited as top dressings.
As a rule, plants cultivated in the greenhouse do best, but you can plant them in the garden at the end of May. The location should be open and spacious, and the lighting should be full of sunshine. Choose a location in your garden where the plants are protected from strong winds. So that the chrysanthemums do not grow too densely, the bed should be wide. Since these flowers need support, you should drive in sticks and stretch a wire between them. It is desirable that the wire be stretched from above and below. The lower one should be at the level of 30 cm, and the upper one – 90 cm. When the stems begin to grow, fix them to the installed support. When growing in the garden, spray your chrysanthemums. During hot weather, this should be done several times a day. This way the stems of the plant will not become woody too quickly. In cool weather, spraying is not required.
Plants grown in the greenhouse, which were then transplanted into the garden, should be brought back into the greenhouse before the onset of frost. The most important thing is to ensure good ventilation of the room. Even in cold weather, it must not be allowed that there is no air circulation. This is very important for these plants. If the night temperature is about 10 degrees, then this is quite enough.
Propagation: In order to reproduce chrysanthemums, you should cut off the main stems at 20-25 cm after the plant has faded. Due to this, new sprouts will appear on the flower, from which cuttings are taken. When the sprouts reach 5-7 cm, the lower leaves should be cut off, and the lowest leaf node should be carefully cut with a knife. Then they must be treated with an insecticide and only then planted in coarse sand, which must be tightly compressed. After making small holes 2-3 cm deep, plant sprouts. At first, they can sag, and they need to be protected from direct sunlight. The ambient temperature determines the rooting time of the cuttings. If the night temperature is about 7-10 degrees, and the daytime temperature is 15-20, then rooting will occur in a few weeks. Perennial chrysanthemums grown in the garden reproduce in the same way. Hardy species can be propagated by planting seeds. They are planted indoors and then transplanted into the garden.
Diseases and pests: damage to plant aphids, spider mites and whiteflies is possible. Chrysanthemum, whose diseases are quite rare, is treated with various chemicals or insecticides, and in extreme cases, the plant should be destroyed.
Growing in a greenhouse and in pots
Chrysanthemums grown in a greenhouse are usually late flowering species. They will not bloom spectacularly without special conditions that encourage early flowering. You should choose the right lighting, good soil and fertilize. The flowering period of such species usually begins in October and lasts until January. Thus, at this time they must be placed in the greenhouse, and in the summer they can be taken out into the garden. Chrysanthemum varieties grown in the greenhouse usually do not tolerate cold well, while many garden species are remarkably hardy.
For example, Korean chrysanthemum is able to tolerate relatively low temperatures, due to which it is very popular with Russian gardeners.
If you plant chrysanthemums indoors (growing in pots), then you need to choose a good soil composition. It should consist of garden arable soil, granulated peat and coarse sand. It is also desirable to add bone meal. The calculation should be as follows: for one full bucket of compost, add a fully filled 7 cm pot of bone meal. The compost should be slightly damp. Young sprouts should first be planted in small pots with compost, and the pots should be filled 2/3. Position the plants so that the roots are on the surface, and then sprinkle more compost on top. Do not plant chrysanthemums too densely. You can moisten the soil by spraying. Place the pots in a place with full sunlight. Keep the soil moist at all times. Night temperature should be around 7-10°C. Once the pots are filled with roots, which take 4-6 weeks to grow depending on the species, the sprouts can be transplanted into larger containers. The composition of the soil should be as indicated above, but garden soil should be 3 parts, peat – 1 part, sand – 1 part. Also add 1/2 of the dried manure and don’t forget the bone meal. If you decide to transplant chrysanthemums, then you need to water them in the evening before transplanting. Broken pottery and sand should be placed over the drainage holes, followed by a 2cm layer of compost. The plant should be planted in the very center, and the soil around it should be laid fairly tightly. Fill the pot with soil so that there is about 7 cm for water. At first, the sprouts will need support, so stick a few branches into the soil near the edges of the pot. Water the plant after transplanting. The next transplant should be done only when you see a lot of roots on the surface of the soil. Chrysanthemums, care for them in an apartment is not so difficult, so many owners prefer to grow them at home. Indoor chrysanthemums are plants that best decorate any room.
Application: Chrysanthemums are of great value as cut flowers. They are also often used for decorative purposes, such as planting in containers. As a rule, annual chrysanthemums are planted to decorate gardens. The most popular among annual species is the keeled chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum carinatum).