It is better to grow roses in soil greenhouses, in which there is at least 2.5-3 m3 of air per 1 m2 of area. In such greenhouses in the spring, under the influence of sunlight, the temperature changes more slowly.
For pot culture, separate varieties of the small-flowered floribunda group are used, polyanthus and miniature:
“Para T” and others.
To create good lighting conditions during the winter months, it is desirable to position the greenhouse in the direction from west to east. It should have good ventilation, a heating system that maintains the specified temperature regime of air and soil in the autumn-winter-spring period, the air temperature in the coldest months of the year is not lower than + 22 °.
The depth of the cultivated soil layer for roses needs at least 40 cm. Therefore, in most cases it is specially imported and the soil mixture is prepared. For better air exchange, well-decomposed manure, high-moor peat, chopped straw and other loosening materials are added to the soil. Improving the physical properties of the soil is achieved by adding 3 kg of chopped straw and 50-60 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2.
The cut is introduced into the soil of the greenhouse in the summer a few months before planting roses. As a loosening material, sawdust can be used up to 15-20% of the volume of the substrate. For 1 m3 of sawdust add 100 kg of cow manure, 10-15 kg of bird droppings. All this is placed in heaps 1 m thick and mixed 3-4 times during the summer months. At the same time, 2-2.5 kg of potassium sulfate and 3 kg of granulated superphosphate are added to the collar per 1 m3 of the mixture.
The soil mixture in the greenhouse is leveled, dug up and kept moist, free from weeds, until the roses are planted.
For intensive use of the protected ground area, you should start planting roses in the greenhouse from the second half of November, that is, not earlier than a month after they are dug out of the nursery. With such planting dates, plants bloom earlier and produce a large amount of production in the first year.
For planting in greenhouses, standard biennial or selected annual bushes are usually used.
Planting material before planting is added dropwise and stored in cool sheds or basements with a temperature of + 1 … + 20.
It is most rational to plant roses of the same variety in a greenhouse. If it is necessary to plant several varieties in a greenhouse, they are grouped according to the timing of flowering. Early and mid-early varieties are planted separately from medium and late.
The recommended technology for growing roses based on high-stemmed formation of skeletal shoots allows you to get 150 or more pieces of cut flowers of large-flowered roses from 1 m2 of usable area:
The main method of planting roses is a bed. The standard width of the ridge is 1m. Ridges are made 20 – 25 cm above the level of the tracks, the middle of the ridge should be higher than the edges. Five rows of plants are planted on the ridge, the distance between rows is 25 cm, between plants in a row is 25-30 cm, that is, 12-16 pieces per 1 m2 of its usable area. Before planting, weak shoots are removed from the bushes, leaving 3-5 best skeletal shoots with 3-4 well-formed buds.
It is advisable to put the bushes for a day before planting in a solution of “Kornevin” or “Kornerost”, especially after long-term storage in a prikope.
Strong bushes are planted in the center of the ridge, weaker ones on the sides. After planting, the bed is given a slightly convex shape, sprinkling the middle with soil removed from the tracks.
Temperature regime. Within 5-6 weeks after the November or December planting, the soil temperature is maintained at + 6 … + 8 °, avoiding strong changes in air temperature, well ventilating the greenhouses. In January, the temperature is brought to +10° at night and +12 … + 14° during the day, which contributes to faster bud germination.
In the future, the temperature is raised at night to + 15 °, and from the time the leaves open – up to + 18 °.
By the end of March, the formation of a bush usually ends, from this time until the moment the bud is formed, the optimum temperature is maintained around the clock + 22 °, then it is reduced at night to + 18 °, and from the time the buds are stained to + 16 °. After harvesting flowers, the temperature at night is again raised to +20 … + 22 °, which favorably affects the growth of new shoots.
In summer, the temperature in the greenhouse is maintained no higher than +25. .. + 30° good ventilation. In autumn, from the time the daytime air temperature drops to +15 … + 16 °, it is necessary to start light heating. This contributes to abundant autumn flowering, reduces the possibility of damage to roses by powdery mildew. The daily temperature should be at the level of +18 … +20, and from the time of flowering until the end of the harvest of flowers – +16. .. + 17° (usually until the end of November).
After that, the air temperature in the greenhouse is maintained from 0° to +2 … + 3 until the start of a new forcing.
Watering the plants in the winter months is enough once every 10-12 days, in the spring – once a week, in the summer – once every 4-5 days, depending on the air temperature.
To prevent diseases of plants with powdery mildew, watering should be carried out in the first half of the day.
humidity mode. During rooting and at the beginning of leafing, a higher soil and air humidity is created. As the shoots grow, air humidity is reduced to a level of 75-80% to prevent the reproduction of spider mites .
The formation of bushes are constantly engaged. There should be at least 30 skeletal shoots per 1 m2 of the ridge area. Depending on the planting density, 2-2.5 skeletal shoots are formed on the bushes. One of the main ways of formation is pinching shoots.
A well-growing shoot is pinched for the first time when the bud at its top has formed and reached a diameter of 3-5 mm. Pinching is carried out over the uppermost cinquefoil, in the bosom of which a new shoot develops from the kidney.
Cutting flowers on poorly formed shoots reduces the number of leaves, vigor and further reduces the yield and quality of flowers. In weak shoots, repeated pinching creates a large number of leaves and a good length of the skeletal shoot. In medium-sized shoots, 1-2 pinchings are carried out over the first (top) cinquefoil, causing the growth of the shoot of the next order.
The length of skeletal shoots in vigorous varieties should reach 90-100, in weak-growing varieties – 60-70 cm.
When planting roses in November-January, the formation of bushes ends in May. At this time, renewal shoots from the buds are actively growing at the place of budding. These are the most valuable shoots.
If the bush is well formed by the time the shoots of renewal grow, then they are cut to the height of the skeletal shoots, and if it is bad, then above the 3-4th cinquefoil, counting from below. In this case, the renewal shoot gives 2 – 3 shoots of the second order, which become skeletal.
From 1-2 or more upper buds of the skeletal shoot, shoots of the next order grow. When cutting flowers on these shoots, be sure to leave at least 3-4 buds on each in the axils of five-seven-leaf buds, counting from below. The top two buds are used by the plant to form flowering shoots of the next order, and the bottom two are used to form flowering shoots in the first wave of flowering in the next growing season.
In mid-August of the first year and subsequent years, an equalizing pruning is carried out, this causes the growth of simultaneously flowering shoots in the fall. It is carried high, trying to keep more leaves on the plants.
Fertilizer. After the first pinching of shoots in February-March, roses are given the first top dressing: 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate or 15-20 g of ammonium sulfate, 35-40 g of superphosphate and 12-15 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m2 for one month of growth, which allows maintain the optimal concentration of nutrients in the soil until intensive flowering begins.
Monthly application of mineral fertilizers in the form of root and foliar dressings ensures intensive growth and flowering in the first year of life.
In the second and subsequent years of growing roses in a greenhouse, during a one-month dormant period, winter form pruning, organic fertilizer application, greenhouse disinfection and other work are carried out. Then intensive distillation of roses is carried out, raising the temperature for several days to +22 … + 24 °, or forcing by the method of gradually increasing the temperature over three weeks from +8 … + 9 ° to +20 … + 22 ° . In the first case, mass flowering, depending on the variety, is observed after 35-45 days, in the second – after 55-65 days.
Pruning. 2-4 most developed skeletal shoots are left on the bush, their total number is brought up to 30 pieces per 1 m2. The best cuts for getting a high yield are current year’s renewal shoots and well-formed last year’s shoots.
On each skeletal shoot, all well-developed shoots of the next order are left with 2-3 buds in the axils of the lower five, seven-leaf leaves, specially left in the last growing season at the first flowering. After removing plant residues, the top layer of soil is removed by 2-3 cm and removed from the greenhouse or only raked from the ridges to the paths.
Then they add up to 100-150 g of double granular superphosphate, 40-80 g of potassium sulfate and 8-10 kg of cow manure per 1 m2 of ridge. Having finished the preparatory work, they begin intensive forcing, starting 40-45 days before the desired flowering time, usually in the first decade of January.
The temperature is increased immediately to + 24 … + 25 °, while watering the soil abundantly. After the beginning of bud germination and the appearance of the first leaves, it is reduced to + 22 ° and maintained around the clock until the time the buds appear, after which it is reduced to + 18 … + 20 °, and if the light intensity is low (cloudy days), then another +2 …+30. By the beginning of the coloring of the buds, the temperature is brought to +16 °, which contributes to the formation of a strong pedicel.
After cutting the bulk of the flowers, the night temperature is again raised to + 20 °, avoiding a high day. Maintaining this regime allows you to get the second wave of flowering in April and the third – in early June.
Watering. In winter, watering is carried out once a week, in spring – once every 4-5 days, in summer – 2 times a week. Watering is carried out in the morning, after which the greenhouses are thoroughly ventilated.
Organic fertilizers applied in winter provide plants with nitrogen, carbon dioxide and microelements in the first 2-3 months of vegetation, and contribute to good soil aeration. Then 35-40 g of nitrogen, 50-60 (and in summer up to 100 g) phosphoric and usually 40-60 g of potash fertilizers per 1 m2 are applied monthly. They also give calcium nitrate, which allows you to make up for its deficiency during the growing season.
For 1 m2 of the ridge, 3-5 g of magnesium sulfate are applied per month. During the growing season, 1-2 top dressings with microelements are carried out. Or, as a top dressing, they use such complex fertilizers as “Weaving Universal”, containing, in addition to the main ones, a complete set of necessary nutrients.
Cut flowers. In winter, flowers are cut 1 time per day, in summer – 2 times. Varieties with soft buds are cut earlier than varieties with hard buds; this is especially important during the summer months.
After cutting the flowers, they are placed in buckets of water in a cool room, where the flowers can be in water for no more than a day.
Protected ground roses occupy a leading position among cut crops. They give a large number of cuttings in all periods of the year.
Getting a good harvest of cut roses in a greenhouse depends on the type of greenhouse, selection of varieties, high agricultural technology, taking into account the varietal characteristics of plants, as well as the implementation of a complex for protecting roses from pests and diseases.
In greenhouses, mainly varieties of tea-hybrid roses are grown.
Reds – with various shades of the main color, including orange-red:
Pink – with different shades:
White with various shades:
Yellow – with different shades: