The formation of full-fledged vegetative organs and hyacinth inflorescences is impossible without annual digging, storage at a certain temperature, and then planting the bulbs in the soil. Plants are used as garden and indoor crops, while for hyacinth planting and care in the open field and indoors have both common features and certain differences. Below we consider separately how to plant hyacinths in the garden, and how to plant hyacinths at home.
How to plant hyacinths in open ground and care
Hyacinth is a heat-loving crop that naturally grows in countries with hot summers and no sub-zero temperatures in winter. Therefore, in the conditions of the middle lane for planting bulbs, a sunny place is chosen, closed from cold winds. Another feature of the plant is the absence of a dense protective skin on the bulbs, so they do not tolerate excessive soil moisture and quickly rot. Therefore, the site for planting hyacinth should be flat, without holes and depressions in which water can stagnate, with water- and breathable soil. With a close occurrence of groundwater, the bulbs are planted using drainage or high bulk ridges.
The plant develops best on sandy, nutrient-rich soil, heavy clay soils can only be used after improving their structure with sand and organic fertilizers. To prevent infection by pests and pathogens accumulating in the soil, the planting site must be changed annually, preventing the hyacinths from returning to their original place earlier than after 3 years. They should not be grown after other bulbs that have similar diseases.
Planting hyacinths in autumn in late September – early October
The preparation of the site for planting begins in August, since natural sedimentation of the soil can damage the roots of hyacinths formed in autumn. The soil is cultivated to a depth of about 40 cm, seasoned with mineral and organic fertilizers, avoiding the use of fresh or poorly decomposed manure. Superphosphate (60-80 g/m2), potash fertilizers (20-30 g/m2) and magnesium sulphate (15 g/m2) are applied as mineral fertilizers. Potassium can be replaced with ash (200 g/m2), magnesium with dolomite flour (250 g/m2). Nitrogen mineral fertilizers are best used in the spring as top dressing. Immediately before planting, the soil is additionally loosened, leveled, and weeds are removed.
Bulbs are planted so that before the onset of frost they have time to take root. In the middle lane, planting dates for hyacinths are the last week of September or the beginning of October. With an earlier planting, the plants can start growing and die in winter, with a later planting, they may not have time to take root before the soil freezes to the depth of the bulbs. If necessary, the planting time can be extended until mid-November. When planting hyacinths is planned at a later date, the soil is preliminarily covered with insulating material and a film to protect it from rain and snow, subsequently leaving this shelter in place even after planting the bulbs.
To obtain high-quality flowers, it is necessary to choose the right planting material. Bulbs should be dense, without mechanical damage and traces of disease, have a smooth surface, a pronounced neck and shoulders. For planting in open ground, choose bulbs of medium diameter, the so-called “flower bed”, because they give flower stalks that are most resistant to adverse weather conditions. Large bulbs are best used for forcing.
An important indicator of the quality of planting material is the ratio of the diameters of the bottom and the bulb itself. It should be 1:1.6 or more, otherwise the bulbs are considered old or poorly grown.
When persistently cold weather sets in, hyacinths can be insulated by mulching with peat, then with sawdust, spruce branches or dry foliage with a layer of up to 20 cm. The insulation material is removed in early spring before sprouts appear.
Processing of planting material, and at what depth to plant hyacinths
Before planting in the ground, planting material for 30 minutes. pickled in a solution of any fungicide. How deep to plant hyacinths is determined by the size of the bulbs. For large ones, with a diameter of more than 5 cm, – 18 cm from the bottom, standard – 12-15 cm. In general, the layer of earth above the bulb should be three times greater than its height. In areas with light soil, the planting depth should be increased by 2 cm, in case of heavy soil, on the contrary, reduced by the same amount. The distance between individual plants should be 15-20 cm. The smaller the bulbs or babies, the denser they are. If humus or compost was not introduced during preliminary digging, it must be added directly to the hole. It is recommended to put a layer of 3-5 cm of coarse-grained sand at the bottom of the planting pit, which will provide the necessary drainage and will protect the bottom from decay and diseases contained in the soil. In this case, the planting material is slightly pressed into the sand, covered first with sand, then with soil. In order for the flowering to be simultaneous, in the same planting hole or ridge, it is better to select the bulbs of the same size and plant at the same depth, which will ensure their simultaneous flowering. For better rooting, with a lack of moisture, plantings are watered.
How to plant hyacinths at home
Growing hyacinths in a pot culture has a number of features. First of all, you need to choose the right planting material. Since planting a hyacinth at home means using it for forcing, it is better to use varieties specifically designed for this purpose. The bulbs should be dense, without visible damage and signs of disease, large, over 5 cm, in size. When using planting material of a smaller diameter, the flowering time and flower size will differ from the standard inflorescences corresponding to the variety .
In order for the flowering to be plentiful, the bulbs must fully mature, that is, after digging, they must go through certain stages of storage. It is better to purchase planting material in specialized stores, where they guarantee the correct preparation of hyacinths for forcing.
In room conditions, just like in the garden, hyacinths are planted in the fall. However, unlike open ground, the exact time when to plant hyacinths is determined by the dates by which they plan to receive a flowering plant. For distillation for Christmas and New Year, they are planted in the first half of September, by March 8 – in October.
For planting choose flat pots, the size of which depends on the number of plants placed in it. When growing one large bulb, the diameter of the pot should be 9-11 cm, when planting several smaller ones, they are planted at a minimum distance in containers with a diameter of 14 cm or more.
Soil for planting can be purchased at the store, or prepared by yourself from a mixture of leafy, soddy soil and humus with the addition of coarse sand. As in open ground, it is recommended to pour a layer of sand of 3-5 cm on a small layer of earth. A pillow of earth and sand with a thickness of about 10 cm is lightly tamped, watered, and then laid out, slightly pressing, bulbs, they are first covered with sand (0, 5 – 1 cm), then with soil. The tops should remain about 0.5 cm above the soil surface, for aesthetic reasons it is better that they do not protrude beyond the edge of the pot.
Rooting occurs at low temperatures, so prepared pots with hyacinths are kept for 2-3 months in a dark, cold room at a temperature not exceeding 7 ° C and constant soil moisture. Usually, at this time, plantings are placed in a non-freezing cold basement, cellar or in a household refrigerator, periodically watering them. After the appearance of sprouts 2-3 cm tall, the dormant period ends and forcing begins. Hyacinths are first transferred to a shaded warmer room, about 12 ° C, and only after a few days they are exposed to full light.
Blooming hyacinths grown in vessels with water look original in the rooms. To do this, you can use special vessels or vases with a narrow neck and an extended top, shaped like an hourglass. They are filled to the top with rain or filtered water, the bulbs are placed so that the bottom is 1-2 cm from the surface of the water, since it will rot when immersed in water. The vessel with the onion is covered with dark paper, and, as in the case of planting in pots, placed in a dark, cold room. During storage, it is necessary to monitor the water level, changing it every 2 weeks. When the roots released from the bottom fill the space of the vessel and sprouts appear, mineral fertilizers are gradually added to the vessel. Further care for such hyacinths is similar to flowers grown in pots.