- 1 General characteristics
- 2 Types and varieties of Honeysuckle
- 3 How to care
- 4 Reproduction
- 5 Fruit
- 6 Diseases and pests: their control, treatment
- 7 Properties
- 8 Use in traditional medicine
- 9 How to collect / store
Honeysuckle(lat. Lonícera) is an ornamental shrub with beautiful, fragrant flowers, the extraordinary aroma of which is strongly felt at any time: day, evening, and night. A plant with dense foliage is often used as a green hedge, gardeners like to plant it along the perimeter of fences, around houses, and use it to decorate the landscape of their summer cottage.
Honeysuckle can also be referred to as “Lonitsera” or “Kaprifol”. The second name is given by the name of Adam Lonitzer, a botanist from Germany. Carl Linnaeus himself originally planned to assign the name honeysuckle, for the reason that only honeysuckle of a variety called Caprifoliumgrew in the gardens of European aristocrats.
The first mentions can be read in the book of the famous Russian traveler Atlasov, who devoted his life to studying the nature of Kamchatka. The most important role in the development of honeysuckle, as a well-known cultivated plant, was played by the scientist Michurin, an outstanding Russian breeder. Due to its unpretentiousness, excellent growth and fruiting rates, in the 20th century, the berry began to spread rapidly throughout regions with an unusually harsh climate.
Perennial straight, creeping or climbing shrub, one to two meters high, endowed with a dense, beautiful spherical crown. Oblong leaves 7 cm long are pubescent with hairs. Outside, they are painted in a bright, and on the inside – in a paler green color. In some species, the upper leaves (or even all) grow together, resulting in a single wide plate. Through such a rim, the ends of the branches are clearly visible.
Funnel-shaped large flowers have a different color. They can be not only yellow and blue, but also white and pinkish. They are found directly in the axils of the leaves, quite often, in pairs. They can also be located in inflorescences, at the very tips of the branches. The calyx of this attractive flower is not strongly developed. A non-standard rim protrudes directly from it, which is divided to form five equal parts at the end.
Honeysuckle blooms in the last days of June, and the fruits ripen closer to the middle of summer. Ripe fruits, reaching a length of 1.5 cm, are painted in a beautiful blue color. Their flesh is red, with a purple tint, always juicy, extremely pleasant to the taste. berries sit either in pairs or grow together. The seeds are small and chocolate brown in color.
For nutrition, only some of the varieties of the presented plant can be used. Many of them are poisonous. This also applies to common honeysuckle, often found in the middle zone of the forest zone of the Russian Federation.
The habitat of a moisture-loving plant is forests, as well as river valleys. Regions:
- Siberia, Far East;
- Altai region;
- China, as well as Japan, South and North Korea.
Wild honeysuckle of large size – up to 4 meters, grows in the mountains of the Pamirs, Tien Shan. Quite often it forms impenetrable thickets.
Types and varieties of Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle is divided into decorative and edible. To date, there are more than two hundred of its varieties. It would take a lot of time to describe everything. Fruits suitable for consumption are usually deep blue in color. On the surface of the wild one can always observe a bluish coating.
Suitable for food should include such types of honeysuckle: “Altai”, “Blue”, as well as “Kamchatskaya”, “Edible” (in a different way “Turchaninov’s Honeysuckle”). The listed cultivated varieties are widely used by specialist breeders in order to bring out subsequent interesting species. Ripens at different times. On this basis, it is divided into:
- Early ripeness (“Roksana”, “Gzhelskaya early”). The maturity of the listed varieties comes closer to the 15th of June.
- Medium ripeness (“Omega”, “Shahinya”) honeysuckle begins to bear fruit closer to the third decade of the first summer month.
- Late ripeness (“Ramenskaya”, as well as “Lakomka”, etc.): fruit ripening begins closer to mid-summer.
Honeysuckle is distinguished by height, which can be:
- undersized– up to 1.5 m (“Kamchadalka”, “Souvenir”);
- medium-sized – about 2 m (“Kingfisher”, “Kuminovka”);
- high– more than two meters (“Fortune”, “Blue Spindle”).
Among professional gardeners, it is customary to conditionally divide all types of honeysuckle into:
- large-fruited (“Three Friends”, “Daughter of a Giant”);
- sweet and sour (“Roksana”, “Titmouse”) – with the taste of wild strawberries;
- fruitful(“Princess Diana”, “Canned”);
The ripened fruits of “Sibiryachka” have a pleasant aftertaste of blueberries. Honeysuckle berries of certain species (“Omega”, “Nymph”) can be on the bush for a relatively long time.
The most common cultivars of honeysuckle
The most famous of the cultivated types of honeysuckle are considered such as “Princess Diana”, “Shakhinya”, and also – “Nymph”, “Souvenir”.
It grows to about two meters. Its crown with bare stems is similar to an oval. The leaves of this honeysuckle are dark green, saturated in color, elongated, rounded to the top. Berries with an uneven surface resemble a cylinder. Their diameter does not exceed 10 mm, and the length is 40 mm. The taste is quite pleasant, slightly sweet and sour
Usually no more than 1.8 m. Has a crown. The configuration of which corresponds to the cone. The leaves are thin, delicate, dark color. It is this variety that is most often used to carry out landscaping. The fruits of “Shahini” are oblong, cylindrical, with a wide straight, as if chopped off, top. The taste is sweetish, with a slight sourness
Belongs to the high varieties. The upper part, namely the crown, is endowed with an oval shape. Differs in the presence of spreading branches. The pubescence is observed over their entire surface. The oval leaf blades are pointed towards the top. Berries are spindle-shaped, with an unusually thin skin and a slightly sour taste.
It will grow up to 1.5 m. Its crown is lush, slightly oval. The stems are endowed with a weakly expressed fluff. The leaf blades are usually oblong, the color is dark. The fruits are slightly elongated, cylindrical type. The top of the berries is pointed. They taste sweet and sour
In an extensive family, there are only a few species of honeysuckle plants, the fruits of which are recommended without fear to be added to the daily diet. Their elongated blue berries are usually enjoyed at the very beginning of the summer season. Other varieties are inedible. When consumed, they can cause serious poisoning.
Decorative honeysuckle is used for a different purpose. Among its varieties there are interesting specimens that can become a magnificent decoration of the garden plot (see photo):
It grows in abundance in its homeland – the south of the European continent and in the Transcaucasus. Honeysuckle with curly branches easily reaches six meters in height. Honeysuckle is an excellent honey plant. The fragrance from its large flowers (5 cm in diameter) spreads for many meters around.
The flowers are not uniformly colored: they are yellow on the inside, purple stripes are clearly visible on the outside. In some places of the Crimean peninsula, on the territory of Bessarabia, you can see honeysuckle with white flowers, turning yellow at the end of flowering. Honeysuckle fruits are red. Honeysuckle of this species begins to bloom after 4 years. Upon the onset of the specified age, it blooms annually in June for a 20-day period.
A feature of honeysuckle is accelerated growth, as well as the need for fertile, well-moistened soils. The life span is about 50 years. It has been used by man for cultural purposes for many centuries. Usually as a variety of gazebos. In order to decorate walls and arches, honeysuckle is often planted next to climbing varieties of roses, so it looks even more impressive.
It grows almost everywhere in Europe and, in addition, in Asia and in the north of the African continent. Often grows up to five meters. Blooms very extensively. The buds are yellow on the inside and reddish-purple on the outside. There are several decorative forms: with lilac flowers, with golden leaves and curly. The latter is considered the latest. Due to the long flowering period, it is especially popular with all gardeners. Flowers with a yellow center are bright red at first, becoming much paler over time. In the cold winter period requires shelter. To do this, the shoots must be removed from the supporting elements in order to fall asleep with a dry leaf, branches of spruce or pine
In an uncultivated form, it can be found in the Siberian region, but also in Altai, in Kazakhstan, in Wed. Volga. For many years it has been bred in summer cottages, in gardens. Smooth-leaved shrub grows up to three meters. It blooms by the end of May with pink flowers. Absolutely unpretentious to negative weather conditions, tolerates frost well. It is divided into the following varieties according to the color of the flowers: white – “alba”, very large white – “grandiflora”, pink flowers and large leaves – “latifolia”, red – “sibirica”, dark pink – “punica”, unusually beautiful fruits of yellow color – lutea.
It belongs to a variety of low honeysuckle, since it can reach a value of no more than 1.2 m. For this variety of honeysuckle, thin shoots are always characteristic, as well as very small leaves. Incredibly fragrant flowers have a pink-lilac color. Alberta tolerates drought well, and in winter does not require mandatory additional shelter. Landing in rocky soil is allowed, as well as used to make decorative slides.
Endowed with a compact crown, no more than one meter high. The flowers are yellow inside and red outside, do not smell. To see the full beauty of this shrub, you should wait for the appearance of its incredibly attractive crimson, shiny fruits. Honeysuckle is resistant to significant frosts, it is not afraid of diseases and garden pests. Most often used as “living” hedges, often used to create borders. The dwarf form “Alpine”, which is called “Nana”, received extraordinary popularity in Europe. Its height does not exceed one meter.
Large, luxurious shrub with a dense spreading crown. Grows up to 4 meters in height. Golden-yellowish flowers smell like honey. Red fruits look beautiful. Golden has become widespread and popular with gardeners, thanks to its winter hardiness and unpretentious appearance.
It is considered a very interesting hybrid. Curly honeysuckle was obtained by crossing two types of plants – “Tuscan” and “honeysuckle”. Attractive with beautiful flowers: inside they are yellow, and on the outside they are purple. An extremely heat-loving plant, it can be grown on the territory of Russia only under the condition of mandatory shelter during the cold period.
Among garden plant species, the following are considered the most popular:
Able to grow within 2-2.5 m. The crown of this deciduous shrub always looks compact. Its stems are erect, somewhat curved. The bark has a brown hue, endowed with the characteristic property of peeling off in the form of strips. The leaf blades are elliptical, with a length of 60mm and a width of 30mm. Flowers of the correct form. All of them are collected in inflorescences. The berries are oblong, similar to an ellipse. Color – blue, dark, with a slight bluish bloom. Slightly bitter, vaguely reminiscent of the taste of blueberries. The plant belongs to the fast growing type. The duration of life and active fruiting is 80 years. To get a good harvest of blue honeysuckle, it is imperative to plant not one, but at the same time 2, or even 3 bushes of different types, since this variety is self-infertile. In some regions, the variety is recognized as a good honey plant.
Lush, spherical, upright shrub, grows up to one meter. Only the formed stems are green and pubescent over the entire surface. Old branches are bare, up to 30mm thick. They stand out from the rest with their yellow bark with a brownish tint. The leaves are oblong, up to 7 cm long. There are round stipules. Dense pubescence is observed over the entire surface of fresh foliage. Old plates are almost completely bare. Yellow flowers resemble a funnel. On the stem they are placed in pairs. Edible flowering starts in May-June (1st day). Fruits are always painted in deep blue color, gray-gray. Their length is from 0.9 mm to 1.2 mm. The configuration can be different: round, like a cylinder or an ellipse. Options are directly dependent on the variety. The flesh of the fruit is usually red, with purple added.
How to care
Growing unpretentious honeysuckle is not particularly difficult. Honeysuckle requires the same care as many other horticultural crops. Most importantly, on time.
- perform weeding;
- to feed;
- do pruning;
- thoroughly loosen the soil;
- spray with suitable means intended for the destruction of garden pests and the occurrence of diseases.
Remember the following: the result of good, proper care and timely application of the necessary fertilizers is always an excellent harvest and a healthy, aesthetic appearance of the plant.
In the initial three years that pass after planting in the soil, seedlings only spud high enough (in spring), water in a timely manner, weed from weeds and loosen the ground. To reduce the number of these procedures (which is quite acceptable), the soil surface around the bush can be sprinkled with mulch. Young plants can do without pruning and fertilizer.
Honeysuckle always requires moderate timely watering, which indicates quality care. You only need to know and remember: during the period of drought (especially in late spring and early summer), the bushes must be poured abundantly. With insufficient water, the high quality and excellent taste of the berries will decrease. The fruits will simply be bitter. In the presence of average temperatures throughout the season, as well as systematic precipitation, watering is carried out only 4 times during the entire growing season. For the procedure, one bucket of water should be poured under the shrub.
Care, in addition to timely watering and proper fertilizing with fertilizers, also involves the following procedures: after rain (irrigation), the soil must be loosened, and weeds must be destroyed. Since honeysuckle is endowed with a superficial root system, loosening is carried out to a shallow depth: 7-8 cm will be enough. If there is mulch, such work can be done much less often and directly through the mulch.
When is the best time to plant
Honeysuckle is planted in spring, as well as in summer and autumn. You should only refrain from planting seedlings in May and June. There is a scientific explanation for this: during this period, honeysuckle shoots grow most intensively. When planting in spring, the procedure must be performed quickly in order to be in time before the opening of the kidneys, since a characteristic feature of the plant is early awakening. Experts advise planting shrubs in well-prepared, fertilized soil between late September and mid-October.
How to plant
Before planting, caring for the plant and applying the selected fertilizers, it is necessary to choose the right place that is most suitable for the crop, or prepare the type of soil that best suits the requirements. The next stage is the preparation of the pits, as well as the material planned for landing.
An ideal area for planting is a fertilized, unobscured lowland marshy area, perfectly protected from significant gusts of wind. It can be located either near a fence or near other bushes. The soil must always remain nutritious; sandy loam and loam are excellent for such purposes. The soil can be amended with organic fertilizer. In order to reduce acidity, it is necessary to add chalk, dolomite flour.
Before planting, planting material should:
- examine in detail;
- cut off broken roots and stems;
- shorten the length of the roots to 0.3 meters.
Prepared pits should have approximately the following parameters 0.4mx0.4mx0.4m. The distance is from 100 to 200 cm: the distance depends on the crop variety. The removed nutrient layer is thrown aside in order to mix with such fertilizers:
- humus or rotted manure (from 10 to 12 kg);
- 0.3 kg of wood ash;
- 100 g of superphosphate (double);
- 30 g potassium sulfate.
The prepared mixture of fertilizers is laid out in a pit with a mound, and a honeysuckle seedling is placed on it and the roots are well straightened. The pit is completely filled with the remnants of the soil. At the end of planting, the root neck of the honeysuckle should be buried 30-50 mm deep.
The soil is carefully compacted, at a distance of 0.3 meters from the center, bumpers should be made. Ten liters of water are poured into the soil directly under the bush. After the water is well absorbed, the surface can be covered with peat, narrowed with soil or humus.
Proper care implies the timely application of fertilizers. The plant does not need to be fertilized for two years after planting. After the end of this period, organic matter is applied at least once every 2 years. It is ideal to do this at the end of autumn. Per square meter you will need:
- wood ash – 100 gr.;
- compost – 5 kg;
- double superphosphate – 40g.
In early spring, the bushes are fed with fertilizers: ammonium nitrate (15 grams per 1 m of plot), as well as a mixture of 10 liters of water and a tablespoon of urea dissolved in it. The 3rd top dressing is carried out using a solution of nitroammophoska (nitrophoska) at the rate of 25-30 g per 1 bucket of water, it is performed only after harvesting. You can also apply slurry (1:4).
The procedure, which seems simple, has certain difficulties. Adult honeysuckle is carefully dug in so as not to damage the root system. Then it is removed from the soil in order to move to a well-fertilized place and planted. Berry culture perfectly tolerates transplant manipulation. Experts recommend performing such a procedure in the summer, immediately after the harvest occurs. During this period, honeysuckle will suffer the least, moreover, it will have time to quickly and well take root in another place. The transplanted bush does not require special care. The main thing is to do it in such a way as to provide him with not just sufficient, but plentiful watering.
There are two propagation methods for subsequent cultivation: seed and vegetative. The latter is divided into the following types:
- cuttings (green, as well as stiff and in a combination of these methods);
- division of the bush;
Each of the above methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, the reproduction of edible honeysuckle is easily obtained by seeds. However, one should always take into account such a characteristic feature of it as cross-pollination: because the seedlings do not store all the characteristics inherent in the variety of the parent bush. In addition, they usually do not show such high properties and characteristics that the predecessor has. The above reasons prevent the cultivation of honeysuckle from seeds by amateur gardeners. This method is often used by breeders.
Upon reaching the age of six years, honeysuckle is always well propagated by dividing the bush. In this case, the following important feature should be taken into account: specimens growing for 15 years or more are extremely difficult, and sometimes almost impossible, to divide into several parts even with an ax or a saw. Therefore, all gardeners strive to reproduce honeysuckle by cuttings or layering.
When choosing this method of growing seedlings, you will need ordinary toilet paper. Take a sheet in order to subsequently apply a pre-mashed, well-ripened fruit to its surface. Aim to keep the distance between single seeds around 10mm.
After following this procedure, the paper should be completely dry. At the same time, do not forget to indicate the date (year) of seed collection on the dried sheet. Paper is stored rolled up. This technique allows the seeds to maintain excellent germination for 2-3 years, provided that they are stored at a favorable temperature closer to room temperature.
If necessary, fresh seeds can be sown immediately in June. In order to qualitatively complete the task, you will need soil that has previously undergone good moisture. Burying the seeds is not desirable to a depth that exceeds 0.1 cm.
All containers with prepared seed should be stored in a greenhouse. They can also be stored covered with glass. The substrate requires constant monitoring and regular checks: a situation should not be allowed when the top layer is overdried. Seedlings appear about 20 days after planting. At the end of autumn, each container must be taken out to the garden plot. Frost-resistant varieties do not suffer even in severe cold, if they are protected by a snow layer.
When planting seedlings in late autumn, in October or November, the containers should be immediately taken out into the garden so that they adapt without waiting for the onset of spring. There they winter well under a layer of snow. In three cold months, the natural process of their stratification will take place. The first sprouts on seedlings will appear on the surface at the very beginning of March. To activate the germination of stratified seeds, pots with crops must be taken to the greenhouse (or choose another ideal place for this) already in the first warm days of spring.
As soon as the seedlings grow to a height of 20 mm to 30 mm and real leaf plates (2-3 pairs) appear on them, they are immediately dived into the garden bed. For this, a 5×5 scheme is used. Young honeysuckle bushes require systematic care, which consists of:
- regular watering;
- thorough weeding;
- loosening the soil surface after watering.
At least 12 months must pass in order to make a seating arrangement according to the 20×20 scheme. After three or four years, the first berries will appear on such seedlings. Amateur gardeners should remember the following: to evaluate their taste and comparison, you must definitely try the fruits on each shrub. This will help to choose and keep only those that you liked more than others, whose taste seemed the most pleasant. It is they who are then transplanted to a permanent location. A plentiful harvest can be harvested on them in 7-8 years, in addition, the taste of the berries will be much better. Other seedlings will also be in demand, but only in the form of green hedges.
All experts in the field of horticulture say that at least two hundred cuttings can be freely cut on one green plant. Harvesting for reproduction begins to be produced with the onset of the first spring days, preferably in early March. In order to grow bushes, always choose powerful, strong annual branches with a diameter of at least 0.7 mm or 0.8 mm. As for the choice of length – it also varies between 15-18 cm.
Landing should be carried out in greenhouse conditions, or directly into the ground in the garden. It must be done in the garden immediately after the soil has thawed. The cuttings are planted in the ground, deepening them by about 10 cm. Check that when deepening, the two upper buds must remain above the surface. To significantly reduce the process of rooting seedlings, you can simply cover the cuttings with plastic wrap or lutrasil. Usually, full rooting occurs in cuttings after one month.
After the honeysuckle flowering process is completed in May or June, you can carefully cut off the one-year-old stem from it, on which the shoots of the current season have appeared. To get healthy cuttings, young shoots of the current season will be required.
When performing breeding work, be sure to take into account such an important point: each cutting must have a kind of heel of the stem from which new shoots have grown. Prepared cuttings are planted on a previously prepared garden bed. Seedlings do not need to be buried in the ground by more than 50 mm. At the same time, a special shelter made of a film is installed over the entire area of \u200b\u200bthe garden bed. The material is watered quite moderately from 2 to 3 times a day. Whether the rooting was successful, you can accurately find out by the presence of regrown tops. This sign is considered the surest indicator of proper cultivation.
The culture lends itself well to propagation with the help of green cuttings when it becomes warm. Harvesting is made from the green shoots of the current season at the end of their fastest growth. This time, as a rule, falls at the very beginning of June. During this period, the fruits change color and become dark blue.
What should be the size of the cuttings? For this, a good guideline is the parameters of a regular pencil. Green cuttings are rooted according to the same principle as the stiff ones. When growing in this case, you only need to carefully monitor that the humidity of the air and soil always remains at a fairly high level. If you want to speed up the process of rooting, just do additional processing of cut petioles (below). To do this, use heteroauxin. Planting cuttings in open ground at their permanent location is carried out when a new autumn comes.
Experts say that the propagation of honeysuckle is easiest to produce by layering. To do this, with the onset of June, the soil surface is well loosened around the bush and, as it were, raised a little. For the material, only viable annual stems are selected, growing at the very bottom of the honeysuckle. They are bent to the surface, then pinned in several places with a wire. The stem is carefully sprinkled with a soil layer. Its thickness is approximately from 30 mm to 50 mm. This stem must be systematically watered throughout the summer season to prevent it from drying out. The separation of successfully rooted cuttings from the main shrub, as well as transplanting to a place of regular stay, is performed only next year in the spring. Layers turn into shrubs after only two years.
By dividing the bush
Reproduction by dividing the bush is allowed only if the plant is already at least six years old. In order for the cultivation to be successful, it is necessary to consistently follow the step-by-step instructions:
- it is worth digging out of the ground in early spring, when the buds have not yet begun to swell or in September;
- to make it easy to divide honeysuckle into parts, you should do this with a garden pruner. A regular saw works well for this;
- all places of the cuts made must be subjected to good treatment with disinfectants.
At the end of the events, each delenka is planted at a chosen place of permanent residence. It is not recommended to divide plants that are too mature, in order not to cause irreparable harm to the honeysuckle and even lead to its complete death.
Many are interested in the question, in what period can we expect the ripening of the fruits of this wonderful plant? Flowering, as well as fruiting in honeysuckle, occurs quite early. The berries ripen by the last days of the month of June – in the first decade of July.
Unfortunately, in the prevailing number of shrub species, the fruits fall off too quickly. For this reason, harvesting should not be delayed for a long time. Otherwise, gardeners are threatened with the loss of a significant part of it.
Collect fruits that have reached full maturity. It is not difficult to find out about its onset – ripe berries are recognized by a change in color to dark blue. If a non-falling variety grows on a garden plot, you can safely wait for ripening for seven days.
With too rapid fall, the crop is harvested in this way. To complete it, you will need an ordinary film or a piece of cloth that is lined under a bush. This is where you should shake off the fruit. The technique has one drawback: in this way it is possible to collect only fully ripened berries.
In order not to damage the delicate skin, which can be easily injured during collection, honeysuckle is poured into small containers and only in the middle layer. Do not store in cold conditions for a long time. In this case, the ideal solution is a quick shipment for freezing in the freezer compartment of the refrigerator.
Delicious fruits are suitable for making jam. In addition, they are pleasant to use twisted with sugar in a blender (when saving in the refrigerator, the ratio should be 1:1). Berries are stored even at room temperature. For this case, you need to increase the amount of sugar by 1/4.
To get an unusually tasty product, it is worth combining honeysuckle with raspberries or strawberries. Such berry mixtures are considered an unsurpassed source of vitamins. Honeysuckle is often used to make excellent homemade wine, tincture and fragrant liquor.
Diseases and pests: their control, treatment
Honeysuckle, in comparison with other plants, has excellent resistance to many diseases. However, there are times when she gets sick:
- powdery mildew;
- olive-reddish spotting.
Plant branches can also begin to dry out or turn black for various reasons. At this time, care should be especially thorough.
All of the above diseases are fungal. They are endowed with individual symptoms. Some cases are characterized by rapid drying, other situations are characterized by the presence of brown or blackened branches. Sometimes the plant turns yellow earlier than usual, and its leaves quickly fall to the ground. Situations in which infection with incurable diseases – cancer and viruses – are extremely rare. These include mosaic-rezuha, as well as mottled leaves.
Fungicides are always used to get rid of fungi. These include the following tools:
- colloidal sulfur;
- copper oxychloride;
- Bordeaux liquid, etc.
In order for the culture to always remain disease-free, healthy and pleased with its beautiful appearance, it must be protected from diseases, systematic prevention and treatment should be carried out. Do this in early spring, when the active period of growth has not yet begun. Sanitization with fungicides is allowed in early-late November, until frosts come.
A distinctive feature of honeysuckle is the same increased resistance to the effects of numerous types of pests. Although, it can also suffer from 37 types of pests that can harm this crop. These include:
- aphid honeysuckle, apical honeysuckle or honeysuckle spruce;
- honeysuckle minerva;
- striped sawfly;
- false shields (willow, apple, acacia);
- leaflet (acacia and rosewood);
- moth foxglove;
- tick (honeysuckle), etc.
Some of these are harmful in that they entangle the leaf plates with their sticky cobwebs. The fingerwing caterpillar harms the fruits during their ripening period, as a result, the berries turn blue before the set time, in order to then dry out and quickly crumble.
It is recommended to get rid of pests gnawing leaves with drugs such as Decis, Eleksar or Inta-Vira. The fight against suckers will be successful if you use the means of “Rogor”, as well as “Aktellik”, “Confidor” or other similar ones in action.
Honeysuckle is a truly unique plant, as it is saturated with a number of substances beneficial to human health. It is worth noting that, in addition to the fruits, the bark of the shrub, as well as its roots and leaves, also have healing properties. The berries contain A, B, C vitamins, which have an unusually beneficial effect on the body, as well as various trace elements, fructose and sucrose, tannins, pectin, in addition – acids of organic origin. Honeysuckle berries are rich in iron, barium, sodium, manganese and silicon. At the same time, they are absolutely non-caloric (only 440kcal per 100g), since they consist of 75% water.
Any of the previously listed numerous varieties of honeysuckle has the following excellent set of properties and an excellent set of characteristics:
- pronounced antioxidant properties to be used in the fight against viral infections;
- eliminates various failures that occur in the work of the intestine;
- strengthens eyesight. It contains a large amount of carotenoids, which allows it to be successfully used to prevent such a serious pathology of the organ of vision as cataracts;
- prevents many skin diseases – acne, eczema, rashes, and lichen. Often, honeysuckle fruits are used for cosmetic purposes, adding them to various tonics, creams and masks.
- any decoctions obtained from the flowers of the plant prolong youth and give beauty. To restore water balance, remove pigmentation, cleanse and narrow pores, eliminate fine wrinkles, a special mask prepared on the basis of honeysuckle will help;
- strengthens teeth and nail plates. Rinsing with decoctions prepared from the bark, branches of a wonderful plant, allows you to get rid of the inflammatory process, as well as ulcers in the mouth and bleeding gums;
- significantly relieves pain in arthritis, rheumatism. To combat these age-related ailments and relieve stress, you need to take a bath with the addition of the bark and branches of the plant.
Eating berries is also indicated for women during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. It can be an excellent alternative to a range of medications. However, it is worth remembering that at one time it is allowed to eat no more than three spoons.
Honeysuckle, like other medicinal plants, with a great many of its advantages, also has a number of contraindications for use. It is noteworthy that only berries of edible varieties are not capable of harming the human body. At the same time, their dosage should always be observed. It is better to avoid a significant number of fruits, otherwise they can become a source of abdominal pain, spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, muscles, and also lead to upset stools and cause a profuse rash on the skin.
Honeysuckle should not be consumed in the presence of the following diseases:
- acute as well as chronic stage of gastric ulcer;
- any type of erosion of the duodenum;
- in cases of allergic reactions.
Reception of berries is also categorically contraindicated in children under the age of five years.
With the above diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract), a decoction prepared on the basis of honeysuckle leaves will undoubtedly have a positive effect. But, it is worth remembering that even in the absence of contraindications, it is necessary to consume berries only in a small, limited amount. This is the only way to guarantee their positive healing effect.
Use in traditional medicine
Adherents and connoisseurs of traditional medicine have long appreciated the magnificent rich composition of honeysuckle fruits, which helps to get rid of many diseases. The plant is widely used to combat many, even very serious, ailments. It is often used as an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and, in addition, a diuretic, choleretic, antifungal agent. In alternative medicine, every part of the honeysuckle is used, especially the fruits. When to take a plant for the treatment of various pathologies at home:
- berries are used to strengthen the immune system and fight colds. Honeysuckle has an antipyretic effect, eliminates inflammation in the respiratory system, and helps relieve coughing attacks. Due to the above properties, taking the fruits of the shrub is especially recommended during the seasons of exacerbation of acute respiratory diseases, influenza epidemics;
- to normalize low / high blood pressure;
- honeysuckle eliminates the occurrence of headaches, is often used in the fight against atherosclerosis;
- the fruits of the plant enhance blood circulation, add elasticity and strength to the walls of blood vessels. Due to these properties, they are widely used to treat diseases of the cardiovascular and circulatory system.
- taking berries in reasonable amounts stimulates the liver and gallbladder;
- perfectly increases hemoglobin, and also keeps it at the required normal level. Honeysuckle is extremely useful in the prevention of blood diseases, it is good for anemia;
- used to treat trophic ulcers;
- It is indicated for failures in the proper metabolism in the body, as well as for diabetes.
- infusion with the addition of branches improves the condition with such an infectious disease as tuberculosis;
- mature fruits of the shrub are recommended for women with a painful menstrual cycle, as well as to make up for the lack of iron. They normalize the functioning of the nervous system, allow you to get rid of sleep problems, relieve tension from the muscles and body, help strengthen bones;
- honeysuckle removes toxic substances and metals, thereby helping to prolong youth;
- prevents the occurrence and development of tumors of various etiologies, including cancer.
Wise monks living high in the mountains of Tibet make medicines from the bark of this culture that relieve pain well, and decoctions are made from its branches to get rid of dropsy. An extract from any part of the plant has an excellent exfoliating effect. Fruits are considered incredibly useful due to the high content of various vitamins, as well as glycosides, catechins and tannins. All of the above properties make the plant extremely popular among traditional healers.
The wonderful aroma of the flowers of the plant, symbolizing the joy and fullness of being, fidelity in love, gaining good luck, is considered one of the most powerful aphrodisiacs. There is even a belief that the owners of any house will always prosper and remain healthy, will not have problems and enemies, if a honeysuckle bush is planted at the entrance to the dwelling.
How to collect / store
Honeysuckle ripens gradually, so it is harvested more than once during the summer – in most cases in the middle and at the end of June. First of all, the fruits that are located at the edges ripen, and those that are closer to the base ripen a little later. The last to ripen are the berries at the very bottom of the plant, which are constantly in the shade.
Honeysuckle is similar in properties to blueberries. Ripe fruits are characterized by the release of a significant amount of juice, which stains hands and clothes blue. After ripening, the berries fall quickly enough, so it is so important to have time to collect them. It is necessary to start collecting at the time when they become a bright blue saturated color. Its fruits are unusually soft and can be easily crushed when harvested. Therefore, for good preservation, it is recommended to use a large wide container in which it will be possible to fold the crop in a fairly thin layer.
The berry can be stored in the refrigerator, fresh, on average up to two days. Often it is also dried or frozen for the winter period of time, since, at the same time, it does not lose its useful qualities. Dried fruits can be stored for up to 3 years.
How to dry honeysuckle?
To perfectly dry the fruits in the oven, you need:
- Put the berries in a thin layer on a metal baking sheet;
- leave the prepared sheet in a preheated oven and dry the berries at 60 ° C. It is important, at the same time, not to close the oven tightly;
- Stir occasionally while drying.
Such a procedure can take 6 or even 10 hours. Drying honeysuckle is also allowed under the open sun. In this case, it is also necessary to lay out the fruits in a thin layer and periodically control the drying process. It is recommended to cover the container with gauze so that insects do not sit on the fruit.
Even more useful and interesting information about honeysuckle, its varieties and beneficial properties can be found in the video.