Haworthia (Haworthia) is a genus of succulents of the asphodelic subfamily, naturally growing on sandy and stony soils of southern Africa, some of the species are greenhouse and houseplants.
- Family : Asphodelaceae or lily family.
- Origin : South Africa.
- Rhizome : thickened roots, often superficial.
- Stem : very short.
- Leaves : fleshy, thick.
- Fruit : box.
- Reproductive ability : propagated by rosettes, less often by leaves or seeds.
- Light : Bright light, no direct sun.
- Watering : moderate, rare in winter.
- Content temperature : 22-27 ° C, in winter up to 10 ° C.
- Flowering time : May-June.
Description of haworthia
Miniature and dwarf succulents , named after the English botanist Adrian Haworth, grow in the arid regions of Southwest and South Africa. They prefer a shady location under bushes, stones, in the grass. Individual specimens are almost completely hidden in the ground, leaving only the tops of the leaves with a transparent skin on the surface, through which sunlight penetrates deep into the tissues.
Most species do not have a stem, forming a dense multi-row, rosette of leaves, fleshy, thick, of various shapes: pointed, triangular, in the form of scales or stones. The edges of the leaves are smooth, serrated, with cilia or ostins. A distinctive feature is the presence of warty growths on their surface, in some species – large, distinctly expressed, in others – barely noticeable, but in any case, the leaf surface is slightly rough.
The types of haworthia, the photos of which are presented below, are grown in room culture.
Most haworthias are plants that do not exceed 10-12 cm in height, forming numerous stolons in the axils of the lower leaves, due to which they grow in breadth, forming dense curtains .
Haworthia flowers are inconspicuous, small, whitish, located in one or more loose racemes on axillary thin peduncles.
Different species in nature go into a dormant state at different times of the year, but in culture they adapt to a winter dormancy period and a phase of active growth in spring, summer and autumn. Flowering of haworthias in room conditions occurs in May-June.
Care and reproduction of haworthia
Despite the variety of forms and species, for most houseplants, haworthy care and maintenance conditions are the same. They prefer a bright spot with direct sunlight for several hours in the morning and evening. Optimum placement on the western and eastern windows, in the north without direct sun, the plants lose their color brightness, in the south – in spring and summer, they require shading.
In summer, the plant is kept at 22 – 27 ° C, at which time it can be taken out into fresh air. In winter, a temperature of 10 – 13 ° C is preferable, although the succulent can withstand drops to 5 ° C and develops well at 18 ° C.
Haworthia is not demanding on air humidity; it does not need spraying. In summer, it is watered moderately, only after the soil has dried, with soft settled water at room temperature. In extreme heat, watering is limited, since at 30 ° C and above the plant stops developing, and stagnant water can cause root rot. Like all succulents, haworthia is rarely watered in winter, once every 2-3 months. Feed monthly from April to September with fertilizer for cacti and succulents.
Transplant in the spring every 2 years, in a flat pot with good drainage, if necessary, a larger size. Use ready-made soil for cacti and succulents or a mixture of equal parts of leaf humus and coarse sand, where perlite or vermiculite is added as a baking powder.
Propagated by daughter rosettes in spring and summer. If the baby has roots, it is immediately planted in moist soil, if it is cut from the mother plant, the stalk is dried for several (large – up to 7-10) days, then planted in a dry substrate. Planting is not covered, kept without watering until rooting, occasionally conducting spot drip irrigation in the root zone. Reproduction by a leaf is possible, which is also dried for 3 days, after which it is planted in sand or loose soil.
For seed propagation, the seeds are laid out on the surface of a loose substrate or sand, germinated in greenhouses at a temperature of 20-25 ° C.
Most indoor haworthias are unpretentious, little affected by diseases and pests. However, there are a number of variegated or completely devoid of chlorophyll forms, which are especially valued by collectors. Since it is more difficult to take care of this type of haworthia, it requires more intensive shading, a special soil composition and irrigation regime, these plants are usually grown by experienced flower growers with certain knowledge and skills.