There are more than 200 species in the genus, but not all of them are decorative.
On the modern site, the main role is not always assigned to large, luxurious perennials. Recently, there has been a trend to decorate the estate with simple, modest, but at the same time charming little flowers.
Unpretentious long-flowering marigolds, pansies, crocuses, periwinkles, phloxes and many other colorful plants delight the eye and create a special cozy atmosphere in the garden. These flowers include jaundice, which is appreciated by many gardeners.
At first glance, the jaundice flower may seem quite inconspicuous, but when several varieties of this culture are planted nearby, the flower garden turns into a colorful elegant carpet. Jaundices are perfectly combined with many ornamental plants, which allows you to create spectacular compositions in the garden.
Description of the jaundice and its growth
According to the botanical description, jaundice (Erysimum) – an annual, biennial or perennial bushy, densely branching plant with a simple stem. Forms a dense, compact bush.
The height of annuals varies from 25 to 80 cm, perennials reach up to 10 cm. The leaves are lanceolate, linear, bright green with a bluish tint, rough.
Flowers with four rounded petals, yellow, orange, various shades of red. Some species have crimson and cream colored flowers. Depending on the variety, the flowers can be simple or double. Blooms in May – June. The fruit is a pod with seeds that ripen in late August – early September.
The plant is poisonous, this must be taken into account when working with it.
The growth of jaundice was found on riverine sands, in meadows and as a weed plant in fields, especially fallow and fallow fields, along roads and near dwellings.
Distributed in the European part of the country, in Siberia, Kazakhstan and the Far East.
A photo is attached to the description of the jaundice, which will help you get to know this discreet but attractive garden flower better:
Gray and left-handed types of jaundice: description and photo
Among the many types of icterus, annuals are of particular value, they are the most decorative and fragrant.
Jaundice gray – a herbaceous biennial plant about 120 cm high. It has narrow, oval leaves pointed at the ends, which are formed on the plant in the first year after planting.>
In the second year, this species has several stems with short hairs, which make it and the branches extending from the base slightly pubescent. The flowers are small bright yellow, collected in racemose inflorescences. Flowering from May to June.
The fruit is a pod about 6 cm long. In official medicine, all parts of the gray jaundice are used. At home, decoctions and infusions are prepared from it.
The description of gray jaundice is supplemented by the photo below, where all the characteristic features of this species are clearly visible:
Left-handed icterus (Erýsimum cheiranthoídes) is an annual variety of icterus up to 120 cm high. As can be seen in the photo above, left-handed icterus has a straight, highly branched stem, oblong, lanceolate, wide, unclearly serrated leaves along the edge. Its flowers are small, bright yellow, with four petals, very fragrant.
The fruit is a slightly hairy pod about 8 cm long with convex valves, containing yellow-brown, ovate-angular seeds. After the seeds ripen, the pod cracks. Freshly harvested seeds have a high germination rate.
Other types of jaundice plant
Jaundice spreading – Latin name Erisimum diddusum L. belongs to the cruciferous family. This is a herbaceous biennial plant, reaching a height of 30 – 90 cm. Narrow serrated leaves are covered, like the whole plant, with thin adpressed hairs, from which the jaundice acquires a grayish-green color.
Small flowers, collected in a brush, are lemon-yellow, thanks to which the plant got its name.
The fruit is a long and thin pod. The flowering period is from May to June. It grows in steppe and forest-steppe regions, on rocky slopes, in river valleys, in dry meadows, sometimes among shrubs and in rare cases in forests.
Cherry’s jaundice (Erysimum cheiri) – one of the most popular species, grown as an annual and biennial. It is a powerful, strongly branched, densely leafy shrub up to 80 cm high. The leaves are bright green, with a bluish tinge.
The flowers consist of four rounded petals about 2 cm long. The color palette of flowers changes at different stages of their blooming from yellow to terracotta. Flowering from July to October.
Marshal’s jaundice (Erysimum marschallianum) is a hybrid plant that can be grown as an annual or perennial crop. The leaves are the same as those of Cherry jaundice. Inflorescences at first – umbrellas, as the flower grows, they acquire a more elongated shape of the brush. The flowers are light yellow.
Perovsky’s jaundice (Erysimum perofskianum) is an annual species. A herbaceous plant with straight, branching shoots about 40 cm high. The leaves are small, narrow, with an emerald color and a bluish tint characteristic of all jaundices. Inflorescences are umbellate, flowered at the tops of the stems. The flowers are simple, inconspicuous, bright yellow.
Redovsky’s jaundice (Erysimum redowskii) – a species up to 20 cm high, blooming in the second year after germination and dying immediately after flowering. The flowers are narrow, linear, gray. Inflorescences few, yellow.
Of the perennials, the most popular is the pretty jaundice (Erysimum pulchellum). Unpretentious plant up to 40 cm high with creeping, branched shoots. The flowers are golden yellow, collected in racemose inflorescences.
In horticulture, they also use low jaundice, or dwarf (Erysimum pumilum) , Allioni jaundice (Erysimum x allionii) .
Growing and caring for jaundice
Jaundice grass is rarely found on the plots, since this culture is more valued for its medicinal properties. However, it can be successfully included in plantings in flower beds with other flowers. It harmoniously looks with all bulbs, especially with tulips.
Due to the fact that this plant is not so popular, not all gardeners know how to grow it. This flower is unpretentious and after sowing the seeds you can forget about it, it will still bloom and smell fragrant, with the exception of hot, dry days, when the flower can fade.
However, those who wish to prolong its beauty and freshness for the entire summer period should follow some recommendations for its maintenance.
The jaundice plant is photophilous, blooms only in bright areas, is not afraid of direct sunlight, so it can be planted in open places and hills.
Prefers nutritious, loose garden soils, rich in humus, with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. Does not tolerate damp moist, as well as dense soil with insufficient water permeability. With stagnant moisture in the soil, the root system of this flower can rot.
To care for jaundice is undemanding. Watering is needed only in very dry weather. It is also necessary to periodically loosen the soil. Before flowering, one top dressing with mineral fertilizer is required.
After flowering, perennial types of jaundice need pruning, otherwise the bushes will fall apart, lose their compactness and density, which means they will lose their neatness and decorativeness. The shoots are cut low enough, thanks to this work, the plant restores the cushion of greenery and will decorate the flower garden until the end of the season.
The plant is winter-hardy, tolerates temperatures down to -3 degrees. This applies to both biennials and perennials. In a mild warm climate, jaundice can bloom even with short-term spring frosts.
In the middle lane, biennials and perennials cover for the winter with a layer of dry sheets and dense material, and spruce branches are laid on top.
How to properly care for jaundice grass in the open field is shown in the selection of photos below:
Reproduction of jaundice
The culture propagates by seeds in summer. Perennial plants are planted in a permanent place at the age of one year.
Annuals are traditionally obtained from seedlings, which are grown in small containers with nutrient soil, covering the crops with film or glass. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 1 degree for 1.5 – 2 weeks. Emerging seedlings are thinned out, leaving a distance between plants of about 15 cm.
After the formation of the second pair of leaves, the seedlings dive into separate containers. Strengthened plants are planted in open ground in May in warm weather, when frosts have passed. Flowering of annuals after sowing can be observed after 2 months.
Seeds of biennials are sown in the ground in spring in May, when the air temperature is stable at around 16 degrees and does not fall below or immediately after ripening.
Before sowing, the soil is preliminarily prepared: loosened to a depth of 15–20 cm, weeds are removed, fertilizers are applied, and the soil is leveled.
Sowing is carried out in holes at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other, then sprinkled with a small layer of earth and watered. Shoots appear two weeks after planting.
Using the herb jaundice with a photo
The use of jaundice in ornamental gardening is multifaceted. They They are used to revitalize lawns, decorate rocky gardens, mixborders. This flower looks good in group and single plantings in the foreground.
Low species and varieties look good in rock gardens and rockeries, besides, jaundice can withstand bright sunlight and drought.
The photo below shows that jaundice flowers are great for decorating flower beds and framing paths in the garden:
Ideal partners for this crop are all herbaceous annuals and perennials in rich colors, such as Wittrock violets, pansies, large veronica, marigolds, calendula.
In addition, this crop is grown in tubs and pots and exhibited in resting places in the garden, namely where you can enjoy the sweet honey aroma.
The plant is also used as a honey plant.
Medicinal types of jaundice (levkoy and sprawling) are used for medicinal purposes. Decoctions and infusions are made from harvested raw materials, which are used as a sedative and heart remedy. Jaundice grass effectively fights insomnia, calms the nervous system, improves cardiac activity.