Daisy (lat. Bellis) is one of the most common ornamental plants. Belongs to the Astrov family. The genus includes 15 species, most of which grow naturally in the Mediterranean countries. Due to the variety of varieties, this crop is grown in all corners of the globe. Each variety differs not only in the color and size of the buds, but also in the timing of flowering.
Inflorescences are capitate, solitary, consisting of bisexual tubular and reed flowers. The color scheme of the buds of this culture is very diverse with a predominance of rich pink and yellow hues.
Flowering occurs in April – May, depending on the region. Lasts for 4-5 weeks. After flowering, fruits remain on the plant – rounded, slightly flattened boxes with small seeds.
Species and varieties
In ornamental gardening, perennial and annual species of daisies are used. Annuals are often grown indoors, and also planted on balconies, terraces, loggias. Perennials are intended for cultivation in the garden.
Annual daisy (Bellis annua). Annuals are compact plants 15 – 30 cm high. They have double inflorescences of predominantly white color. The central part of the baskets is golden yellow. Flowering begins in the second half of April, lasts for a month.
Perennial daisy (Bellis perennis). Perennial varieties of daisies grow up to 10 – 20 cm. They are miniature herbaceous plants with straight unbranched stems. The leaves are oval, elongated, with a rounded top. Develop in the root zone. Inflorescences are lush baskets with a diameter of 7 – 8 cm. This species is dominated by varieties with red, pink, white and yellow buds, which can be simple or double.
Description of popular varieties of daisies and photos of flowers:
“Robella” is one of the most popular varieties in ornamental gardening. Valued for large dense buds of pink-salmon color.
“Pomponette” – differs in compact capitate inflorescences of white colour.
“Rob Roy” – the plant does not exceed 10 cm in height. At the tops of the stems, scarlet inflorescences with a diameter of 2 cm develop.
“Bella Daisy” is a terry early-flowering variety with baskets 3 cm in diameter of a piercing pink colour scheme.
“Bellissima” – a plant with flexible elastic stems 10 – 12 cm long. Baskets can be one colour white or pink or combine two shades.
“Tasso” – a varietal series consisting of miniature flowers, the height of which reaches 10 – 15 cm. Terry buds, 3 – 4 cm in diameter, bright pink, snow-white, lilac and other tones.
“Tasso Red” – reaches 10 – 18 cm in height. Intense green foliage is collected in a dense basal rosette, located near the ground. Baskets with a diameter of 5 – 6 cm have a bright red tint.
“Habanera” – grows up to 17 – 20 cm. Forms large terry loose inflorescences with a diameter of 6 – 8 cm. The colour of the baskets is pink, scarlet, raspberry, and burgundy.
“Pink ball” – a biennial plant 15 – 18 cm high. It has pale pink double dense inflorescences with a yellow central part.
“Speedstar” is a beautiful semi-double variety with white, yellow, cream-coloured baskets.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Seeds of daisies are characterized by high germination, so they are planted immediately on the site in open ground. This work is carried out in the first month of summer. After planting the seeds of daisies in open ground, for ease of care, small ridges are made, watered, then the seeds are evenly scattered on the surface of the earth without deepening.
Sprinkle a layer of sand on top. In humid, warm conditions, the sprouts will hatch in a week. Daisy seedlings are developing rapidly, and soon they will need to be planted in a permanent place in the garden at a distance of 20 cm from each other.
During the summer season, developing plants should be watered regularly. This year they will direct all their efforts to the formation of foliage. Flowering can only be observed next spring.
In order to get flowering in the current season, it is recommended to grow daisies through seedlings: you need to plant seeds when the calendar spring comes (in early March).
It is recommended to take plastic glasses so that there is no need for picking, since the root system of young plants is very fragile and can be severely injured during transplantation.
Capacities fall asleep with loose nutrient soil. Seeds are planted without deepening, moistened with a sprayer. Crops are stored in a bright, warm place. After the sprouts hatch, the seedlings are transferred to a cool room with a temperature of 12 – 15 degrees.
Planting seedlings in open ground should be carried out in the last days of May, or with the onset of summer. The area where the daisy will grow should be well lit, as this flower cannot grow in the shade.
This crop should not be planted in a lowland where moisture stagnation is observed, since there is a high probability that rot or a fungal infection will affect the roots.
Planting seedlings in the holes is carried out by transshipment along with a clod of earth. This will help preserve the roots and successfully take root seedlings in a new place. After planting, the soil around the bushes is compacted, watered well.
As practice shows, caring for daisies is simple.
- Watering. The root system of the daisy lies close to the surface of the earth, so the flower will require systematic watering. It is enough to water the plant at the usual time every two days, during hot periods – every other day or daily. So that a dense crust does not form around the bush, the soil after water procedures must be loosened. This will ensure oxygen access to the roots. During loosening, weeds are removed. Mulching the area with sawdust or dry foliage will help reduce the frequency of watering, loosening and weeding.
- Top dressing. An important condition for growing daisies is regular feeding. Fertilizer is required to be applied 3 times per season, using a complex mineral composition for this. During the period of growing green mass, the soil is enriched with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, when the first inflorescences appear, potassium-phosphorus top dressing is added, and after flowering, humus is added.
- Preparing for the winter. The daisy is considered a low temperature resistant plant. However, in order for the roots not to be damaged in a frosty snowy winter with the onset of cold weather, the aerial part of the flower is cut off, the area is mulched with a layer of peat, sawdust, or the plant is covered with spruce branches. If in the spring, after removing the shelter, roots protruding from the ground are found, such specimens will need to be transplanted to the desired depth.
- Diseases and pests. With improper care, daisies can get sick or be attacked by harmful insects. The fact that the plant was struck by the disease is evidenced by elongated pedicels, small inflorescences, pale foliage. The affected flower must be dug up and burned. Treat the area with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate.
The cause of white bloom on parts of the plant is powdery mildew. A solution of colloidal sulfur or Bordeaux mixture will help to destroy the fungus. If there is a white web on the flower, then a spider mite has settled on it. In the fight against harmful insects, the insecticide “Aktellik” helps.
A variety of varieties of daisies with a wide color palette of inflorescences allows you to use this flower in landscape design. This culture looks most advantageous in combination with tall flowering plants.
The best neighbors for her are hyacinths, lilies of the valley, primroses, irises, gladioli, nasturtiums, carnations and other colorful flowers.
Tall varieties serve as a backdrop for evergreen crops: ferns, hostas, bergenia. Undersized specimens are planted in the foreground of flower beds, used to create alpine slides.
In landscape design, daisies are used to frame artificial reservoirs, streams, decorate a recreation area, borders, and lawns with flowers.
By planting several different varieties of daisies nearby, the gardener will be able to get a bright colorful carpet, fill nondescript areas, and transform a boring flower garden.
Annual varieties and miniature perennials are grown in containers, and planters, and used to decorate room window sills and balconies.