That is why, before you start breeding ornamental plants, you need to get acquainted with the tips for growing and caring for garden flowers. The better the grower knows the characteristics of a particular type of flower, the more noticeable the result of his efforts.
In order not to be offended when lush flowering bushes grow and smell fragrant at a neighbor’s site, and only a couple of withered daisies are visible on your territory, you should try to regularly take care of the planted flowers, sparing no time and effort.
Varieties of garden flowers: signs and photos of annuals and biennials
The whole variety of herbaceous flower and ornamental plants grown in open ground can be divided into three main groups: annuals, biennials and perennials.
The main sign of annuals from biennials is that they bloom and die in the year of sowing. In terms of the perfection of the forms and brightness of the color of flowers, the timing and duration of flowering, and the decorativeness of the leaves, most letniki surpass the flowering plants of other groups.
It is very important that many letniki breed in a seedless way, i.e. sowing seeds directly in open ground.
Letniki are usually divided into flowering, ornamental, curly. Annual plants are widely used.
Throughout the summer and until late autumn, they decorate flower beds, mixborders, borders, parterres, rockeries, containers; they decorate gazebos, verandas, balconies.
Biennial flowering plants for the garden are those with a life cycle of two years. In the first year, a shortened stem and leaves develop, most often in the form of a leaf rosette. In the second year – in spring or summer – the plants bloom, form seeds and then die off.
For the most part, biennials are cold-resistant and, under the conditions of the middle lane, winter normally on specially designated ridges or in a permanent place in the flower garden.
Most biennials propagate by seed.
According to the timing of flowering, the types of flowers for giving – biennials are divided into plants of the spring flowering period (pansies, daisies, forget-me-nots), summer (this is, first of all, Turkish carnation, foxglove, middle bell, mallow, which bloom profusely in July-August). Some of the biennials can live for three or even four years, but they gradually lose their decorative effect.
Biennials, like perennials, and annuals are used to decorate summer cottages, balconies, terraces, as well as in urban gardening. They are also grown for cutting (digitis, carnation, mallow, violet, bluebell). Perennials are herbaceous plants whose life spans several years.
They have a number of undoubted advantages:
- bloom in early spring, when annual plants are still growing;
- able to bloom again in autumn (often bloom until frost);
- many perennials have large flowers (for example, tulips, lilies, peonies, dahlias, gladioli);
- bloom for a long time and retain their decorative qualities;
- are used for distillation (obtaining flowers in winter and early spring periods, primarily bulbous and bulbous plants). In addition to flowering plants, perennials include a large number of ornamental leaves.
Features of the type of garden flowers – perennials
Perennials, depending on the structure of their underground part, are divided into the following main groups:
Bulbous: нdaffodils, tulips, hyacinths, muscari, etc. The perennial part of them consists of a strongly shortened shoot – the bulb.
Corms: dahlias, gladioli, montbrecia, begonia. Their perennial part consists of tubers – the main reproductive organ and storage place for reserve nutrients.
rhizomatous – these include primroses, bluebells, cornflowers, etc. Their perennial part is a rhizome, a modified shoot, in which reserve nutrients accumulate and renewal buds are located.
Until recently, types of garden flowers – perennials were propagated only vegetatively, since during seed propagation they lost their varietal characteristics. And only in the middle of the 20th century in the USA, Japan, England, Canada, and then in our country, varieties were created that completely repeat the parental characteristics during seed propagation.
Such perennials include large-flowered leucanthemum, delphinium, hybrid rudbeckia, blue catchment area and a number of other plants.
Perennials have their own characteristics and a number of advantages over annual and biennial flowering plants. They are distinguished by a wide variety of decorative qualities; they are easily propagated by cuttings, seeds, rhizomes, bulbs, layering. And finally, perennials can be in one place in the garden from 3-4 to ten years or more.
The optimal time for planting and transplanting perennials is autumn or spring. A very important point when growing these flowers in the garden is their protection from low temperatures, and heat-loving plants (for example, incarvillea, knifofiya, Korean chrysanthemum) are most susceptible to the destructive effects of frost.
All of them require additional shelter. The most reliable shelter from frost is snow, non-woven covering materials, grass, dry foliage have proven themselves well. Shelter is carried out only after a constant negative temperature is established and the soil freezes to a depth of 3-5 cm.
Type of ornamental plants for the garden – shrub
One of the varieties of garden flowers is an ornamental shrub, for example, rose, lilac, mock orange, spirea, hydrangea, rhododendron, weigela, forsythia, buddley.
According to decorative features, shrubs are usually divided into three groups: flowering and decorative leaves. Not all shrubs are frost-resistant, some of them in the middle lane sometimes freeze up to the root collar, but they are restored annually and do not lose their decorative value.
Shrubs are usually divided according to the height of the stems. On this basis, three groups are distinguished;
- high (height 3-5 m),
- medium (1.5-2.5 m)
- low (1 m and below).
Shrubs are less long-lived than trees, and their life spans from several to tens of years.
Most shrubs are deciduous, but there are also evergreens (magonia, some species and varieties of rhododendrons, rosemary, cowberry). Some shrubs are propagated by seeds, but most are vegetatively.
Many shrubs form offspring or layering (lilac, euonymus, snowberry, sod), which take root easily. Shrubs are usually divided into three groups according to their requirements for light: light-loving, moderately shade-tolerant and shade-tolerant.
Shrubs are popular with amateur gardeners due to the beauty of flowering, aroma, decorative leaves. And also because they are easier to care for than herbaceous plants.
In the photo below you can see the varieties of garden flowers, see their characteristics and differences.
Conditions for flowering garden plants
Growing flowers in open ground requires flower growers to invest their time and effort, because, as you know, each plant needs certain conditions for a normal life: the amount of sunlight, temperature, day length.
Lighting. Only in the light does photosynthesis take place, during which plants absorb carbon dioxide and produce sugars, proteins, vitamins and other complex compounds. Most flower crops are sun-loving, in the shade they grow and bloom poorly. When planting, it is important to ensure that the plants are not in the shade of buildings and, growing up, do not shade each other.
The crowns of heavily overgrown trees must be thinned out by removing shading branches.
A number of crops for a beautiful and long flowering require a certain length of daylight hours. Plants native to the southern regions, as a rule, have enough 12-hour illumination. Long day plants need light for 14 hours or more. Day neutral plants grow equally well in both short and long days.
Temperature. In the process of growing garden flowers, it must be taken into account that the vital activity of plants is possible only within certain temperature limits.
So, in central Russia, in most plants, vegetation begins at an air temperature of 5-7 ° C, and the temperature that is optimal for their growth and development is in the range of 20-25 ° C. Both ornamental and all fruit plants during the growing season do not tolerate low temperatures, and with a significant decrease in temperature they die.
Late spring and early autumn frosts are especially dangerous for flowering plants. Late frosts in spring are detrimental to shoots that have begun to grow, opening buds, and buds. Early autumn frosts damage and destroy flowers of dahlias, gladioli, geleniums, golden balls, perennial asters. The need of flower crops for warmth largely depends on the natural habitat of the genus and plant species.
To regulate the thermal regime during the cultivation of flowers in the country, it is necessary, first of all, to select places protected from cold winds for planting, and in case of frost, apply various agrotechnical methods of protection – smoke bombs, bonfires; small plants are sprayed with water, covered with non-woven materials (agril, lutrasil, spunbond), peat, fallen leaves.
What soil is suitable for flowers in the country
The development of garden plants largely depends on soil fertility. According to the content of humus in soils, they are divided into several groups: infertile, in which humus is less than 1%, medium-fertile, with a humus content of 2-3%, and fertile, where humus is more than 3%.
In Russia, sod-podzolic soils (occupy more than 5% of all land), gray forest soils and podzolized chernozems (region of central Russia), chestnut and brown soils (the southeast of the country , zone of dry continental climate). In many regions, especially along river banks, there are sandy soils characterized by a small amount of humus. There are also marl soils, which contain a significant amount of lime.
The acidity of the soil is usually denoted by the Latin letters pH. The degree of acidity must be taken into account when choosing places for laying plantings and when applying certain mineral fertilizers. There are several gradations of acidity: strongly acidic soils (pH 4-5), slightly acidic (pH 5-6), neutral (pH 6-7) and alkaline (pH 8-9).
Flower and fruit plants relate differently to soil acidity. So, slightly acidic soils are most suitable for planting apple trees, pears, cherry plums, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and some other crops. Alkaline soils are good for plums, cherries, apricots, and Japanese quince.
Most ornamental flower crops grow best in slightly acidic and neutral soils.
Visually, the degree of soil acidity can be determined by the weeds growing on it. For example, goutweed, plantain, horsetail grow well on acidic soils, and mustard and white clover on alkaline soils.
You can increase acidity by systematically adding acidic fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, superphosphate, etc.) to the soil.
To reduce acidity per 1 m2 of soil, you can add 250-600 g of lime or a glass of dolomite flour.
Soil preparation for garden flowers
In horticulture, to improve the structure of the soil and backfill the planting holes, one or another amount of nutrient substrates is required. In stores, you can buy ready-made soil for garden flowers, designed for open ground plants. When buying, you need to check for the presence of a quality certificate, which indicates the composition of the substrate, acidity, and the list of nutrients included in it.
In many regions of Russia, especially in rural areas, amateur gardeners prefer to prepare the substrates themselves. To improve their mechanical composition, it is recommended to add sand or modern inert substances to such mixtures: perlite, expanded clay, foam plastic chips.
The composition of substrates for open ground can be very diverse and vary depending on the age of plants, their requirements for soils. Younger plants usually like lighter soil than older ones.
The soil for flowers in the country should be loose, water and air permeable, free of pests and pathogens, as well as weed seeds, have an acidity of pH 5-7, suitable for many flower and ornamental plants. It must be sieved so that it does not have foreign impurities – stones, pieces of wood, glass.
For the preparation of various substrates, sod, peat, heather soil is used; leaf humus (leaves of oak, willow, walnut, chestnut are unsuitable for leaf humus); coarse sand.
Additives of perlite, foam chips, expanded clay, peat significantly increase the moisture capacity of the substrate. This is especially important on dry, especially sandy, soils.
Often on the acquired plots, except for weeds, nothing grows, and the plots themselves are located on waterlogged acidic soils. In such areas, first of all, land reclamation should be carried out.
Areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, the presence of perched water and excessive moisture are not suitable for growing garden flowers, as they require drainage. To remove surface water and lower the groundwater level, it is best to use ditches with a certain slope, leading to lower places where a drainage well (water collector) is dug. If there is a stream or river near the site, excess water is directed there.
In drainage ditches, the bottom and walls are coated with clay or cement, reinforced with boards. Such ditches are annually cleared of debris and weeds that delay water flow. However, it is more expedient to use perforated asbestos-cement, plastic or pottery pipes.
They must be laid, depending on the height of the groundwater, to a depth of 1.5-2.5 m. Planting flowers, shrubs and trees with a close occurrence of groundwater can be done on earthen ramparts at least 3 m wide and 70-80 cm high.
They are made using the upper horizons of the soil, adding sawdust, peat, sand, tree bark, and various plant residues. When breeding flowers in the country, that is, developing and preparing the site, it is important to remember that the main element of its decoration is plants. These are hedges, green walls, flower beds, lawns, flower beds, rabatki.
Ornamental trees are planted in accordance with the plan so that their crowns, with increasing age, do not intertwine. In large areas, it is recommended to plant plants with a spreading crown, such as mountain ash, ash, maple, linden, pine, and in small areas, trees with a pyramidal crown (spruce, as well as mountain ash ‘Fastigiata’, Norway maple ‘Columnare’, Scots pine ‘ Fastigiata’, drooping birch Fastigiata’).
Ornamental shrubs (lilac, mock orange, hydrangea, viburnum, spirea, park roses) and lianas (girl’s grapes, honeysuckle honeysuckle, actinidia kolomikta, Chinese magnolia vine) are planted simultaneously with trees.
Soil cultivation for cultivation of garden flowers
Cultivated areas are dug up in autumn or, in large areas, plowed up. The main tillage for bulbous crops is carried out to a depth of 30-35 cm 1.5-2 months before planting, for other flower crops – before planting, to the same depth.
For onion crops, when digging, a bucket of humus, 150-200 g of ash and 50 g of superphosphate are added. The site chosen for other flower crops is fertilized differently. About 0.5-1 bucket of well-rotted manure or compost is applied per 1 m2 of area. Before planting plants (in autumn or spring), a complete mineral fertilizer should be applied, from 45 to 90 g per 1 m2.
Planting flower and ornamental plants in open ground is carried out at different times depending on the climatic conditions of the region, plant resistance to low temperatures and the degree of hardening of seedlings. In central Russia, at the end of May, asters, snapdragons, cloves, levkoy, as well as seedlings of perennials – gypsophila, delphinium, asparagus, are planted. After 1.5-2 weeks, when the threat of late spring frosts has passed, the turn of more heat-loving crops comes – dahlias, begonias, balsams. The distance between plants depends on the crop and the degree of soil preparation.
Seedlings of perennials and annuals should have a healthy, well-developed, fibrous root system and be suitably hardened off. Perennials are planted in autumn or spring on ridges or on a flat surface, depending on soil conditions and biological properties of plants.
It is very important to prepare the soil well for sowing seeds. It must be prepared in the fall, using turfy soil, sand, rotted compost in a ratio of 2: 1: 0.5 for this.
Planting is best done in the evening. The root neck can be deepened by no more than 1-2 cm. The need for transplanting perennial herbaceous plants arises when they have been in one place for 4-7 years, grow strongly, and the soil is noticeably depleted.
So that the earth does not crumble from the root system, the seedlings are watered abundantly before planting.
Watering when growing flowers in the country and in the garden
Caring for flowers in the garden involves regular and proper watering, since water is the main component of plants. Mineral solutions enter the plant with water, and photosynthesis occurs. The need for watering depends on the air and soil temperature, the size of the root system, the type of plant, and the areas of cultivation. With a lack of water, the shoots begin to fade, the leaves turn yellow, curl up, and the plant may die. The source of water is the supply of soil moisture in the root layer.
During the growing season, the need for plants in water is not the same. Most of all, they need it during periods of intensive growth. Regular watering is required to maintain optimal soil moisture in the garden.
At the same time, excess moisture can cause rotting of part of the root system and the appearance of dangerous fungal diseases on plants (fusarium, anthracnose, gray rot, etc.).
For many flower crops, excess moisture is detrimental. In these cases, timely and proper soil care (loosening, fertilizing) is important.
- It is better to water infrequently, but plentifully. Water should moisten the soil to a depth of 20-30 cm. In order for the water not to evaporate in the sun, but to completely go into the soil, watering is best done in the afternoon, and in the south – in the evening. For watering flower plants, it is desirable to use settled water.
- Seedlings for convenience and in order to save water are watered into the wells. After the soil dries out slightly, it is advisable to loosen and mulch it. Due to this, moisture is better retained in the soil, evaporation is reduced and gas exchange is enhanced.
- Weeds are taken away from flower plants! a lot of moisture, nutrition, light. Usually several weeds are carried out per season. Manually – after rain, with the help of tools, such as hoes – in dry weather, in this case, the weeds die faster.
Top dressing as care for flowers in the garden
A very important element of caring for flowers in the country is fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers. This is especially necessary for perennials that bloom in autumn. Thus, gladioli, phloxes, cannes, perennial asters, geleniums, which have a long growing season, have a higher need for nutrients compared to plants with a short growing season (galanthus, crocuses, xifiums, daffodils, tulips). During the period of mass flowering of perennials, top dressing is carried out in the following doses: nitrogen and phosphorus – 15-20 g / m2 each, potassium – 10-15 g / m2.
Letniki during the growing season, it is desirable to feed three times. The first top dressing is carried out 15-20 days after planting in a permanent place, the second – in the bud formation phase and the third – during the flowering period. Asters, carnations, levkoy are especially demanding on top dressing.
In the conditions of central Russia, to stimulate the growth and development of shoots and leaves, plants are fed with nitrogen or complex mineral fertilizers. Do it in the spring, more often in the second half of May. 20-25 g of nitrogen, 15-20 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium are added to a bucket of water. At the second top dressing, which is carried out in the beginning or first half of June, full mineral fertilizer is used in the same quantities.
With the third and subsequent top dressing in early or mid-July and August, the dose of nitrogen fertilizers is reduced (15-20 g). Flower plants are very responsive to the use of organic fertilizers (fermented mullein solution 1:15 or chicken manure solution 1:25). Fertilizing is best done after rain or with the obligatory watering of plants.
A good result is obtained when applying granular fertilizers, because they retain their strength in the soil longer than conventional mineral fertilizers and their effect is always stronger.
Immediately after fertilizing or watering, the soil should be mulched, preferably with some organic material (humus, peat, sawdust). Under a mulch layer of 4-5 cm, a significant part of the weeds die, and the weediness of the site decreases several times.
Flower care in the country – shelter for the winter
Before the onset of winter, all dried and dead parts of flower plants are removed. Leave uncircumcised only plants wintering with green leaves. The cut leaves and stems are piled up and burned.
Plants with insufficient cold resistance require timely preparation for winter. Shelter with insulating materials is necessary to protect not only from frost, but also from sudden and frequent temperature changes, the drying effect of winds and especially sunburn in snowless winters. The signal that it is time to insulate is the onset of stable low temperatures and freezing of the soil to a depth of 2-3 cm.
Plants should be covered in two steps: first with peat, moss, and when lower temperatures occur, spruce branches and dry leaves are placed on top of the first layer. First of all, plants planted in September or October should be covered, as they have not yet had time to develop a sufficiently powerful root system and can be seriously affected by low temperatures. Bulbous beds with the onset of frost are covered with leaves, peat or spruce branches with a layer of 7-12 cm.
To shelter a number of flower crops for the winter, you can use various types of films or a very dense non-woven material (agril, lutrasil, spunbond), from which tunnels are built. Metal or plastic arcs are installed at a distance of 0.5-1 m from each other and, for strength, are connected with a wire fixed to iron or wooden stakes driven into the ground from the end sides of the frame.
It is best to use reinforcing milky white film or any agricultural film with a thickness of 80-100 microns. With careful use, the film can last at least two seasons.
In the spring, shelters are also removed in two steps. Fully flowering plants open only with the onset of warm weather.
Digging and storage of bulbs and corms
When preparing perennials for winter, it is important to dig up bulbs, tubers and corms in a timely manner.
Dahlias and cannes need to be dug up before the onset of stable cold weather. If the root collar is damaged by low temperatures, then the corms are unlikely to survive until next spring.
Bulbs of hazel grouse, tulips, hyacinths are dug up annually. Digging begins after yellowing of the aerial part. The excavated nests are divided, cleaned of soil and leaf residues, folded to dry in a well-ventilated area.
Kandyk bulbs do not have protective scales, so they are immediately planted in the soil. The optimal mode of storage of bulbs and corms: the first 3-4 weeks the temperature is within 22-25 ° C, in August the temperature drops to 18-20 ° C and further until planting it should not exceed 15-17 ° C.
During the storage period, bulbs and corms are regularly checked. Affected specimens are destroyed immediately.
A number of bulbous plants can be grown without digging for several years. Daffodils can stay in one place for 4-5 years, crocuses – 5-6. And the scilla, muscari, and even more so kandyk, can generally be left to themselves, digging out only as needed.
The video about growing flowers in the country, presented on this page, will help you figure out how to care for various types of garden ornamental crops.
Seed propagation of flowers in the country when breeding them
Seed propagation is used to propagate annual, biennial and some perennial crops. The main advantage of such reproduction is obtaining a large amount of planting material in a short time. Seedlings of heat-loving letniki should be grown in greenhouses or greenhouses, on glazed loggias, where the temperature during the day is kept at 15 ° C, and at night it does not fall below 12 ° C.
Most crops are carried out in closed ground in the second half of March – early April. First of all, you should sow sage, verbena, snapdragon, petunia, tobacco, etc. Before sowing, the seeds are checked for germination.
Seeds are sown in bowls, pots or boxes 5-7 cm high, with good drainage. Soil mixtures are prepared from peat, fertile soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 with the addition of a mixture of 10 g of superphosphate and 5-7 g of chalk to a bucket. The mixture is placed in boxes, a layer of sand (2-3 cm) is poured on top, on top of which the seeds are sown.
If the seeds are very small, they are mixed with sand. Sown seeds (except small ones) are slightly sprinkled with compost or sand and watered from a watering can with a fine strainer. Large seeds are sown to a depth twice their size.
Crops before germination are covered with glass or plastic wrap. The grown seedlings (2-5 cm) dive into boxes with a substrate containing a mixture of fertile soil, peat and coarse sand in a ratio of 7: 3: 2 with the addition, as in the first case, to a bucket of a mixture of 5 g of chalk or limestone and 20- 30 g of complete mineral fertilizer.
Seedlings are planted according to the 4×5 cm scheme. At the end of April, they are hardened, transferring them to cold greenhouses or cool, bright rooms. Planting in open ground of thermophilic annuals is carried out after the end of spring return frosts.
Plants grown in peat pots are planted in the soil to the desired depth along with pots without destroying the soil coma.
Directly in open ground, as a rule, annual and biennial flower crops are grown, less often heat-loving perennials. Cold hardy annuals can tolerate light frosts. Sites for sowing choose light, sunny, humus-rich soil. The soil is prepared in the usual way and 60 g of complete mineral fertilizer is applied. The depth of sowing seeds depends on their size and is usually 0.5-1.5 cm.
Plants with a short growing season (cornflowers, asters, calendula, scabiosa, etc.) are sown in early spring or before winter. Cold-resistant annuals tolerate late spring frosts down to -4-5 °C.
In summer, in open ground, you can sow types of ornamental plants for the garden – biennials: forget-me-not, violet, evening, carnation, foxglove.
Seeds of such heat-loving crops as amaranth, zinnia, balsam are sown in open ground in spring, after the end of late spring frosts. Some perennials (cornflower, watershed, swimsuit, etc.) are sown before winter.
You can sow seeds in the soil both dry and soaked, and already swollen. In a cold and rainy spring, sowing is best done with dry seeds, as pre-soaked ones can become moldy and even rot.
Soaking seeds is carried out in clean water for 8-24 hours. The swollen seeds are dried for 40 minutes or one hour to prevent sticking and immediately sown in pre-prepared grooves in the beds at a distance of 0.4-0.5 cm from each other. Such crops will provide earlier germination and longer flowering.
Small seeds of flower plants (petunia, snapdragon, lobelia, etc.) are mixed with clean, well-washed sand at the rate of up to 100 g of sand per 1 g of seeds. After sowing, the seeds are not sprinkled with earth, but lightly pressed to the soil with plywood, board or glass.
When nesting sowing, the hole from the hole should be, depending on the type of flowering plants, at a distance of at least 15-25 cm.
Sown seeds are lightly covered with soil. In winter, the ridges are covered with snow and spruce branches or small branches are thrown over them, which will trap the snow.
Care of crops consists in timely watering and weeding. Thinning begins when the seedlings have their first set of true leaves. When thinning, weak plants with pale green, yellow or deformed leaves are removed – these are signs of damage by diseases or pests. Plants stretched out from a thickened planting or lack of light are also removed. When thinning, seedlings are watered abundantly.
During the growth period, all growing flower plants must be fed with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. This is done at least once a week. Periodically, seedlings should be inspected and, if pests and diseases appear, they should be urgently destroyed.
Other types of flower propagation for giving
vegetative reproduction. This method is most often used for perennial ornamental plants.
Parts of the rhizome reproduce perennials that have rhizomes (chrysanthemums, irises, cannes, phloxes, goldenrods, geleniums, etc.). The dug up plants are carefully cut with a sharp knife into several parts, each of which should have several buds and its own roots. When breeding anemones tender and crowned, tuberous begonias, cannes, their rhizomes are dried and divided in the spring, before planting, when the buds become visible.
It should be remembered that all plants that bloom in summer and autumn are divided in spring, and those that bloom in spring – in autumn.
Mustache reproduction. This is the traditional way to propagate strawberries. Whiskers grow horizontally, at the nodes they touch the ground and form new rooted plants. A few whiskers are left on the mother plant. For better rooting, the sockets are pressed with fingers to the ground, sprinkled a little with moist soil and watered.
In August – September, rooted daughter plants are transplanted to a permanent place. In this way, fragrant violet, duchenea, creeping tenacious, etc. reproduce very well.
Propagation by root cuttings. This method propagates perennials with taproots. These primarily include lupine, phlox, astilbe, oriental poppy, etc. On the roots of such plants are dormant buds, which, when separated with a piece of rhizome, form independent plants. For division, the roots are dug up, cut into pieces 5-8 cm long and placed in boxes with soil. Shade cuttings and water regularly. The plant forms roots and shoots in 20-30 days.
Propagation by stem cuttings. This is one of the easiest and most popular ways to obtain planting material. It is used in the propagation of chrysanthemum, geranium, aconite, phlox, peony, delphinium, etc. Young green shoots are taken from mother plants, the base is treated with Kornevin and planted in a moist substrate, deepening to the very leaves.
The planted plants are shaded, the soil is watered with a fungicide. Green cuttings are best done in greenhouses.
Reproduction by layering. This method is not widely used, but they can propagate, for example, cloves. When propagating by layering, the most well-developed shoots of the plant are selected, bent to the ground and pinched. They are laid in pre-dug small furrows (7-9 cm) and sprinkled with earth.
The top should be on the surface of the soil. By autumn, young shoots appear from dormant buds, and roots form from shoot nodes. In autumn, the new plant is ready for transplanting to a permanent place.
How the cultivation of garden flowers is carried out, in the following photo, is clearly demonstrated, this will help you better understand some of the intricacies of floriculture.