Chamerops squat (Ch. humilis) is the only palm species in Europe. Most often, the chamerops palm tree is used as an indoor decor element. However, different parts of this plant are also used for other purposes. From the fibers of dead leaves surrounding the trunk of a palm tree, carpets, sails and furniture are made. Flour is obtained from the core of the trunk, from which bread is baked. The fruits and young shoots are eaten. Mats are woven from the leaves of the chamerops, and summer hats are woven from the veins of the leaf.
Chamerops is squat and low
Chamerops squat is a short (2-3 m) multi-stemmed, rarely single-stemmed (up to 6 m high) palm tree with a lush crown. Palm tree trunks grow from one base and reach up to 30 cm in diameter. Trunks grow very slowly.
Chamerops leaves are attached to long, spiny petioles. One petiole can hold about 20 leaves up to 1.5 m long.
The shape of the leaves is fan-shaped.
The flowers are greenish-yellow, unisexual, small, wind-pollinated, in branched inflorescences. Blooms at the end of May. The immature fruit is a green berry with a diameter of about 1.5 cm. Over time, it becomes yellow or brown in color.
From home palms, the dwarf hamerops palm (Chamerops humilis – low) with wide fan leaves grows well in cool sunny rooms (on stairs, in summer on balconies, terraces and in gardens even in the north).
The external differences of this culture can be seen below in the photo, which shows the chamerops palm.
The palm tree grows in gardens along the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and in the south of Spain it forms wild impenetrable thickets. In Algeria, chamerops is considered a noxious weed. This plant is not whimsical to growing conditions and is very hardy, so it grows in areas with sandy and stony soils.
Care and reproduction of room palm chamerops
Location. Caring for a chamerops at home is not difficult, since the palm tree is unpretentious, it feels equally good in both bright and semi-shady rooms. In summer, it is recommended to take the plant out into the fresh air or place it near an open window and shade it from direct sunlight.
Temperature. In winter, the temperature should not be lower than 5-7 °C. In the warm season, the palm tree should be kept at a temperature of 23 – 27 degrees.
Air humidity. When caring for a hamerops palm, it should be borne in mind that although it tolerates dry room air, it must be sprayed on hot days. In the autumn-winter period, spraying should be stopped; it is enough to periodically wipe the leaves with a damp cloth so that dust does not accumulate on them.
Watering. Caring for a hamerops palm at home also means proper watering, on which the growth and development of this crop largely depends. In summer, watering is plentiful, but not excessive. When watering, you need to monitor the condition of the earthen coma, if the top layer dries up, you need to moisten the soil. It is recommended to water the plant with soft settled water. In autumn, watering is reduced, and in winter they are replaced by spraying. The palm tree tolerates a short drying of an earthy coma.
substrate and fertilizers. The standard substrate for chamerops is clay and leaf earth, sand (2: 1: 1). Strong drainage is required. It is useful to add pieces of charcoal to it. To grow a plant, you can use an earth mixture of humus, sand, turf and compost in equal parts. For an adult, a substrate with a large amount of clay soddy soil is suitable, while the volume of sand in the soil mixture should be minimal.
Chamerops care includes fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers. In spring and summer, chamerops need to be fed weekly. In winter, it is enough to fertilize once a month.
transfer. A palm tree should be transplanted no more than 1 time in 4 to 5 years in the spring and summer. In order for the plant to successfully grow and develop, annually change the top layer of soil to a new one. To do this, use a spatula to remove a layer of the old substrate, and add the missing amount with fresh.
The greatest harm to chamerops is represented by scale insects, which appear most often on the underside of the leaves. Quite often, a spider mite starts up.
With improper care, the leaves begin to turn brown and dry.
Watering with hard water, waterlogging of the soil, low air temperature where the plant is located, lead to the appearance of brown spots on the leaves.
If watering is very frequent and the earth ball does not have time to dry out, the root system rots.
Dry air and insufficient watering cause the edges of the leaves to dry out, as a result of which creases appear.
Sometimes the grower is faced with the fact that the lower leaves turn brown and die off. This is the natural process of growing a plant. No action is required in this case.
Propagation is by seeds or branching of side shoots.
Most often, chamerops are propagated by offspring. To do this, they must be separated from the petioles and planted in a mixture consisting of equal parts of flower soil, sand and perlite. After the roots appear, the sprouts should be transplanted into pots.
It is possible to obtain chamerops palm from seeds at home, which is a less laborious and successful way to propagate this crop. Before sowing, seeds are recommended to be soaked in water for 5 days. After that, it should be sown in loose soil to a depth of 1-2 cm and covered with moss. The soil must be prepared in advance by mixing soddy soil, sand, compost and humus. At the bottom of the container where the seeds will be planted, lay a layer of drainage, as the palm tree does not tolerate stagnant moisture and begins to rot.
After sowing the seeds, cover the container with a film and put it in a warm place where the temperature is not lower than 25 ° C. Apply top dressing once a week until shoots appear. Don’t forget to water.
Wanting to get chamerops from seeds, the grower must prepare for the fact that seedlings will appear in 1 to 4 months.