Ligularia (lat. Ligularia ) is a representative of the Aster family. The second name is buzulnik. The genus includes medium-sized and tall herbaceous plants, which are most often represented by perennials. Moist areas are required for their growth and development.
In the natural environment, this culture grows in Europe and Asia. Flower growers appreciate buzulnik for shade tolerance, intensive flowering that lasts for 8 weeks, and the ability to grow a plant without transplanting for more than 5 years.
In some species, the leaves are double-colored, combining purple and reddish hues.
Inflorescences – baskets with a diameter of 10 – 12 cm, which consist of nondescript tubular and beautiful marginal flowers of red, brown, yellow colors. The buds begin to open from the bottom of the peduncle. Buzulnik blooms in the second half of July. Flowering lasts until August.
Species and varieties
It is difficult to list all varieties of ligularia – one of the most famous and sought-after plants in ornamental gardening.
Below are the names, characteristics and photos of the most popular types and varieties of buzulnik, as well as recommendations on how to plant this plant and how to care for it.
Przhevalsky. An interesting and very attractive appearance of the buzulnik. It is one of the most common in ornamental gardening. Differs in low requirements in leaving and frost resistance. It is a bush with straight powerful stems 1.5 m high. Inflorescences in the form of an ear are strewn with small flowers. A beautiful addition to the plant is large carved foliage.
“Maple-leaved” – got its name for expressive intense green leaves, similar in shape to maple. The diameter of the leaf plates is 30 cm, their surface is smooth, dotted with a grid of veins.
“Rocket” – a tall variety with a height of 1.9 – 2 m. The shoots are straight, with small branches. The leaves are heart-shaped with teeth along the edges. In summer, the foliage is rich green, by autumn it acquires a burgundy hue. Inflorescences – yellow baskets.
Serrated. A variety common in culture up to 100 cm high. Leaf plates, like most other representatives of the genus, are large, heart-shaped, collected in a volumetric rosette. Inflorescences – panicles consist of baskets with a diameter of 8 cm. Reed flowers are yellow, tubular – brown. This species begins to bloom in the last summer month.
“Desdemona” – a variety 60 – 70 cm high with triangular leaves, along the edge of which there are notches. Flowers intense yellow. Flowering can be observed from August.
“Osiris Fantasy” – reaches no more than half a meter in height. The leaf plates are wide, pointed at the top, with a green surface and a burgundy underside. Blooms in mid-summer.
“Othello” – has triangular, pointed in the upper part, glossy leaves with a diameter of 0.5 m. Above the leaf plates are dark green, brown on the underside. Baskets are orange, up to 13 cm in diameter.
Vicha. One of the tallest species of ligularia, capable of reaching 2 m in height. The leaves are heart-shaped, up to 40 cm long, up to 30 – 40 cm wide. There are large teeth along the edges of the leaf plates. Spike inflorescences consist of many small yellow buds. Flowering begins in the last summer days. Frost resistance of the plant is average.
Kaempfer. A shrub with ascending, slightly branched stems. The leaves are rounded, with a pointed tip and teeth along the edge. Formed in the root zone, forming a lush rosette. Baskets of a light yellow color scheme, 6 cm in diameter. They are part of the racemose inflorescences. This species begins to bloom in July days.
large-leaved. Differs in the impressive size of the heart-shaped sheet plates. In diameter, the leaves can reach 45 – 60 cm. The color of the leaves is bluish-green. Racemose inflorescences consist of several yellow baskets. Peduncles grow up to 1.5 m. The variety is resistant to low temperatures.
Wilson. Reaches 140 cm in height. It has large kidney-shaped pointed leaves on long petioles. Inflorescences include several baskets of yellow tint. Flowers bloom in mid-summer.
Siberian. Its height is 100 – 130 cm. The stems are straight, ribbed, slightly branched. The leaves are elliptical, pointed at the top. Inflorescences – brushes with yellow baskets.
Fisher. Bred as a perennial. It is a bush with a height of 50 to 120 cm. The shoots are ascending, furrowed. The leaves are large, spear-shaped, up to 25 cm long, up to 20 cm wide. The flowers are baskets of bright yellow color. Flowering occurs in the second half of June.
Hessey. It has corymbose loose inflorescences with baskets 5 cm in diameter. The leaves are rounded or heart-shaped, with notches along the edge, rich green in color. The height of the bush is 2 m, width – 1 – 1.5 m. It begins to bloom in mid-August.
Tangut. This species is distinguished by a tuberous rhizome that forms stolons. Stems ascending, with little branching. The height of the plant is 70 – 90 cm. The leaves are deeply dissected, bright green. Inflorescences include many small yellow baskets. The plant begins to bloom in mid – late summer.
As practice shows, growing a buzulnik is not difficult at all. Spring planting of ligularia seeds in open ground does not cause problems, since the seed of this plant has good germination. It is enough to choose a site in partial shade and shade, dig it up, make a ridge, and moisten it.
Sow the seeds in moist soil to a depth of 1 cm. Before the emergence of seedlings, the crops must be periodically moistened so that the earth does not have time to dry out and crack. Seedlings of this culture sprout very quickly.
Already after 10 – 15 days you can see the first sprouts. Also, planting ligularia seeds can be carried out before winter, then they naturally stratify during the cold season.
When growing buzulnik from seedlings, seeds are planted in containers with a substrate in late January – early February. The grown seedlings can be transplanted to the site on warm days in May, after the return frosts have passed.
Reproduction by division
From the fact that the root system of the buzulnik is able to grow strongly and bulge out of the ground, it is transplanted to a new place every 5 to 6 years. The best time for this is the end of March – the beginning of April, depending on the climate of the region where this crop is grown.
During transplantation, it is required to dig out the part of the plant protruding from the soil. The resulting void should be filled with mineral fertilizer mixed with the ground, then water this area abundantly.
When propagating a buzulnik, the excavated part of the bush must be divided into parts so that each has a healthy, intact growth bud. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place in pre-prepared planting pits 30–40 cm deep. The distance between the bushes should be at least 1 m. The next year, the plants will begin to bloom profusely.
- Watering. Irrigation of moisture-loving crops should be systematic. The earth must always remain moist. Only under this condition will the plant feel comfortable. It is important not to over-water with watering during the formation of buds and during the period of active development. By the beginning of autumn, the frequency and intensity of watering is reduced, by October they stop watering altogether.
- Topdressing. Fertilization when growing ligularia is carried out 2 times a month, starting to do this work in the spring after the snow melts and continuing throughout the summer season. In the spring months, nitrogen-containing additives are used to actively grow foliage. In summer, light mineral compositions are used. A couple of times per season, the substrate is enriched with organic matter.
- Other agrotechnical activities. After each watering, loosen the soil near the bushes, remove weeds. In order for the buzulnik to look neat and attractive, faded baskets and dried leaves are cut off in a timely manner. Tall species require a garter to a support, as they can bend to the ground under the weight of foliage and inflorescences.
- Preparing for the winter. At the first sub-zero temperatures, work begins on preparing buzulnik bushes for wintering. Cut the stems, leaving 3 – 5 cm from the surface of the earth. After that, the area where the flower grows is mulched, covered with spruce branches or a dense material that does not allow moisture to pass through. Even frost-resistant species can be damaged in harsh winters with little snow, so preparation for wintering is very important in the middle latitudes of Russia.