Adiantum is very widespread, grows in subtropical, tropical and temperate zones. Often found in the Caucasus, in the Crimea and the mountains of Central Asia. As a rule, it settles near water bodies, along rivers, lakes, streams.
- Homeland: subtropical regions of the globe.
- Content temperature: +20 +22°C in summer, +14 +18°C in winter.
- Watering: regular in summer, moderate in winter.
- Air humidity: up to 60%.
- Lighting: diffused light, partial shade.
Description: plant of the fern family. It is a terrestrial, creeping perennial herbaceous plant with erect dictyostelic rhizomes covered with narrow brownish scales. In most species, the leaves are pinnate, from once to five times pinnate, with dichotomously branching free or anastomosing veins. The leaves of some species have brood buds at the top. A feature of the leaves are water-repellent properties – flowing down, water drops do not wet the surface of the sheet.
Adiantum – plant species
The genus includes about 200 species. The most famous and sought-after types of maidenhair:
Adiantum transparent (Adiantum diaphanum Blume) is a herbaceous plant 25-40 cm tall with pinnate or double pinnate leaves at the base. Leaves of the 1st order up to 3 cm wide and up to 20 cm long, 2nd up to 1 cm wide and 1.5 cm long. The leaves are broadly oval, glabrous, dull green in color, rounded above and concave at the bottom. Reniform sporangia are located along the upper edge. Thin petiole up to 20 cm long.
The species is ornamental and is used as a pot plant or for cutting leaves. It grows in humid places in New Zealand, South China and the Indochina Peninsula.
Gentle maidenhair (Adiantum tenerum Swartz) – a plant with a short creeping rhizome and thrice pinnate leaves up to 70 cm long and up to 50 cm wide. The leaves, wedge-shaped at the base and broadly lobed along the upper edge, are located on 30 cm black petioles. An ornamental species that grows well indoors. Under natural conditions, it lives in tropical America, on the Greater and Lesser Antilles.
Adiantum finely pubescent, or finely hairy (Adiantum hispidulum Sw.) – with a creeping rhizome and palmately dissected leaves 15-25 cm long. Leaflets of the 2nd order are diamond-shaped, 0.5 cm wide and up to 2 cm long, bristly-omitted from 2 sides, are on strong, finely bristly petioles up to 35 cm long. Sporangia are densely arranged. The species is decorative, widespread. Grows well as a houseplant. In nature, it grows in the mountains, rising in Africa to the snow line. It grows in India, New Zealand, Australia and the island of Madagascar.
Adiantum beautiful (Adiantum formosum R. Bg) – a plant with a creeping, thin rhizome and three or four pinnate, broadly oval leaves of the 1st order up to 60 cm long and up to 45 cm wide triangular in shape. Leaflets of the 2nd order are herbaceous, dark green, rhomboid-lobed, 0.8 cm wide and 2 cm long. In the upper part of the leaflets are kidney-shaped sporangia. Petiole rough, 30-50 cm long. Decorative, grows well in warm and semi-warm rooms. It occurs naturally in New Zealand and Australia.
Adiantum wedge -shaped (Adiantum cuneatum Langsd. et Fisch.) – very similar to the beautiful Adiantum, but differs in the presence of a horseshoe-shaped sori located in recesses along the edge of the segments. Grows in Southern Brazil.
Adiantum venus hair (Adiantum capillus-veneris L.)
The most beautiful and popular fern in room culture. Adiantum Venus hair is a perennial fern up to 60 cm tall with a creeping short rhizome dressed in blackish, narrow scales. Leaf petioles are thin, from 15 to 25 cm long, black-brown. The leaf blade is light green, up to 40 cm long, twice – thrice pinnate, in combination broadly oblong and not wetted by water. Leaf segments 1.5-2 cm wide and up to 3 cm long, thin and delicate, on hair-like petioles, obovate in outline, having a wedge-shaped base and a fan-shaped lobed apex.
Sori shine through the thin tissue of the leaf segment, simultaneously framing it with a dark dotted line. Easily grown indoors. Widespread in the Mediterranean, Western Europe, the Crimean mountains, North and Central America, Central and Asia Minor.
Adiantum Ruddy (Adiantum raddianum C. Presl)
Dense creeping plant with thrice pinnate, triangular leaves 25-45 cm long and 15-25 cm wide. Leaflets are fan-shaped up to 1 cm wide, wedge-shaped at the base, and rounded at the top, lobed and dense. Semicircular sporangia are located in the recesses of the leaflets. Up to 20 cm long thin petiole.
Adiantum Ruddy lives on tree trunks in South America.
Adiantum fragrans (Fragrans)
Fast-growing, forming dense bushes maidenhair fragrans with many leaves plant up to 50 cm tall. The leaves are pale green, oval, up to 3 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, on 10-15 cm petioles. Very delicate, ornamental plant. It lives in South Asia and the South American Andes.
Adiantum – care and maintenance of a houseplant
Adiantum plants are thermophilic, not tolerant of bright light, especially direct sunlight, which causes the leaves to die and the plant to die. The optimum temperature for maintenance in summer is +20 +22°C (at temperatures above +22°C it is necessary to ensure high humidity), in winter it is not lower than +14 +18°C. Does not tolerate cold air, drafts, dust and tobacco smoke.
In summer, watering is regular, but without waterlogging, and in winter – moderate, depending on air humidity. For irrigation, you need to use soft water at room temperature.
Adiantum during care and maintenance must be fed once every 3 weeks with fertilizers for indoor flowers in liquid form, about half the recommended dose.
You need to trim only very old or damaged, as well as dried leaves.
Transplantation is carried out in the spring as needed (if the pot is cramped for the plant) and only after growth begins in the substrate, consisting of equal parts of sod, peat, leafy soil and sand. Dead roots are removed during transplantation. After transplanting, the fern must be plentifully watered and sprayed for 3-5 days.
Propagated during transplantation by dividing the bush and spores.
Adiantum – diseases and pests
|The leaves turn yellow from the very base, spots appear and the leaf dies||too low air humidity.|
|Plant leaves wither||improper watering.|
|Wai tips dry out||too low air humidity.|
|Leaves curl but do not dry out||drafts, or hypothermia with too high soil moisture.|
|Pale leaf color, burn marks||exposure to direct sunlight.|
Spider mite – when the air is too dry, cobwebs appear on the stems, the leaves wither, turn yellow and fall off. Control measures: Remove the cobwebs with a soft brush, gently wash under a warm shower and increase the humidity of the air around the plant.
Aphids – from the underside damages the leaves and tops of the shoots. Damaged parts lose their natural color, and the leaves curl and fall off. Control measures: spray with decis, actellik, inta-vir, derris or fitoverm. After drying, rinse the leaves in warm, clean water.
To prevent pest damage, the fern can be sprayed once a month with water and tobacco dust.